Indus Valley Civilization 1. Indus Valley The Indus valley civilization was one of the world’s first great urban civilizations. It flourished in the vast Indus river plains and adjacent regions, in what are now parts of Afghanistan, Pakistan and north- western India. 2. Beginning Around five thousand years ago, an important civilization developed on the Indus River floodplain named the Indus Valley Civilization (IVC) which was a Bronze Age Civilization (3300-1300 BCE; mature period 2600-1900 BCE). 3. Evolution of the Indus Valley civilization 6500-5000 BC: Early food producing era. 5000-2600 BC: Regionalization era. (3300-2600 BC: Early Harappan). 2600-1900 BC: Intregation era. (mature Harappan) 1900-1300BC: Localisation era. (Late Harappan) 1300-300BC: Post Indus tradition. 4. Discovery and Excavation Indus Valley was first described in 1842 by Charles Masson in his ’’Narrative of Various Journeys in Balochistan, Afghanistan, and the Punjab”, where locals talked of an ancient city. In 1872–75 Alexander Cunningham published the first Harappan seal (with an erroneous identification as Brahmi letters). Finally, an excavation campaign was started under Sir John Hubert Marshall in 1921– 22. 5. Geography of Indus Valley The geography of the Indus Valley put the civilizations that arose there in a highly similar situation to those in Egypt and Peru, with rich agricultural lands being surrounded by highlands, desert, and ocean. the civilization extended east into the Ghaggar-Hakra Rivervalley and the upper reaches Ganges-Yamuna Doab; it extended west to the Makran coast of Balochistan, The Indus Valley Civilization encompassed most of Pakistan, extending from Balochistan to Sindh, and extending into modern day Indian states of Gujarat, Rajasthan, Haryana, and Punjab, with an upward reach to Rupar on the upper Sutlej. Recently, Indus sites have been discovered in Pakistan's northwestern Frontier Province as well. Other IVC colonies can be found in Afghanistan
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- Indus Valley Civilization