Review for Crim test 1 - Review for Crim test 1 From the...

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Review for Crim test 1 From the textbook Criminal Justice an introduction 4 th edition by Freda Adler & Gerhard O. W. Mueller & William S. Laufer CHAPTER 1 Criminal Justice- p. 4- the sum total of societies activities to defend itself against the actions it defines as criminal Wedding Cake Model- p.11- celebrated cases serious felony cases lesser felony cases misdemeanor cases Probable Cause- p. 16- set of facts that would lead a reasonable person to believe that an accused person committed the offense in question; the minimum evidence requirement for an arrest, according for the 4 th amendment Exclusionary rule- p.16- rule prohibiting the use of illegally obtained evidence in a court of law Reasonable suspicion- p. 17- suspicion that a person has been or may be engaged in the commission of a crime Miranda warning- p. 17- warning that explains the rights of an arrestee, and that police recite at the time of the arrest or prior to interrogation Preliminary hearing- p. 20- preview of a trial held in court before a judge in which the prosecution must produce sufficient evidence for the case to proceed to trial Grand jury- p 21- panel of 16 to 23 citizens who screen the prosecutions evidence, in secret hearings, to deice whether someone should be formally charged with a crime Prima facie case- p22- case in which there is evidence that would warrant the conviction of the defendant unless otherwise contradicted; a case that meets evidentiary req. for grand jury indictment Indictment- p 22- accusation against a criminal defendant rendered by a grand jury on the basis of evidence constituting a prima facie case Information-p22- accusation against a criminal defendant prepared by a prosecuting attorney
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Sentencing guidelines- p23- system for the judicial determination of a relatively firm sentence based on specific aggravating or mitigating circumstances Probation- p23- alternative to imprisonment, allowing a person found guilty of an offense to stay in the community, under conditions with supervision Alternative sanctions- p23- punishments or other dispositions imposed instead of the principal sanctions currently in use, such as imprisonment or probation Parole- p 24- supervised conditional release of a convicted prisoner before expiration of the sentence of imprisonment Attrition (mortality) rate- p24- rate at which the #’s decrease n the course of the criminal process bc persons are diverted out of the system Direct file- p27- prosecutor’s power to try juvies directly in adult criminal courts Transnational crimes- p31- criminal activities extending into, and violating the laws of several countries
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