SOCIOLOGY 307-Final Exam Review done.docx - SOC307 \u2013 Research Methods I Final Exam Review Chapter One Human Inquiry Science Learning Objectives 1

SOCIOLOGY 307-Final Exam Review done.docx - SOC307 u2013...

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SOC307 – Research Methods I Final Exam Review Chapter One: Human Inquiry & Science Learning Objectives 1. Identify different nonscientific methods of knowing and compare them to knowledge gained by science. 2. Explain the difference between epistemology and methodology. Epistemology is the study of why and how we know what we know. A methodology is a system or process designed for establishing a reliable result or inference. A hypothesis requires a methodology to achieve a reproducible outcome. So, other people can test the hypothesis and verify the original outcome is correct. 3. Differentiate between these different types of errors: illogical reasoning, overgeneralization, selective observation, and inaccurate observation. Illogical reasoning is reasoning based on logic strategies that are not valid . Typically, the error in logic can be demonstrated by examples taken from a domain totally different from the subject at hand. Overgeneralization is to draw a conclusion or make a statement about (something) that is more general than is justified by the available evidence. Selective observation - is a kind of discontinuous observation that provides random selection of parts of the aggregate and the possibility of subsequent dissemination of the received data to the whole set of units. The original data array is called the population. Inaccurate observations are simply that – a failure to report accurately what one has witnessed . This error is common when we are not mindful in our approach to observation. 4. Recognize and refute concerns about social science research such as triviality, exceptions, and human interference. 5. Identify the variables, attributes, and theories of a research study. All research projects are based around variables. A variable is the characteristic or attribute of an individual, group, educational system, or the environment that is of interest in a research study . Variables can be straightforward and easy to measure, such as gender, age, or course of study. Certain terms are very commonly used in research and the success of any research depends on these terms. These terms determine whether a research is free of biases, prejudices, and subjective errors or not. They are called the characteristics of research. 1. Reliability is a subjective term which can not be measured precisely, but today there are instruments which can estimate the reliability of any research. Reliability is the repeatability of any research, research instrument, tool or procedure. If any research yields similar results each time it is undertaken with similar population and with similar procedures, it is called to be a reliable research. Suppose a research is conducted on the effects of single parenting on the class performance of the children. If the results conclude that it causes low grades in class, these results should have to be reliable for another sample taken from a similar population. More the results are similar; more reliability is present in the research.
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2. Validity is the strength with which we can make research conclusions, assumptions or propositions true or false.
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