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Reviewer for KAS 1What is History?-historian-cause & effect-connections-chronology“History is like a narrative” “History is based on facts”What does a historian need to write history? Facts.2 Kinds of FactsA. Facts of the Past −Facts that happened B. Historical Facts −Rescued; was mentioned −Kind of subjective sine “pinipili” kung ano yung important “Perspectives will change as time goes by as long as there are people.”E.H. Carr −continuous process of interaction between historian and his/her facts−unending dialogue between past and present History VS KasaysayanHistory−Greek: historia (inquiry into the past)Kasaysayan−Tagalog: saysay (significance/relevance)Salazar−salaysay hinggil sa nakaraan na may saysay para sa sariling grupo o lipunan Time−temporal context −there is a change as time passes Place−spatial context−culture is different among different placesex: highlands vs lowlands culture -river valleys enabled large populations/civilizations to growPeople−actors, influences, recordersWhich is the most important? People. Time and place will always exist but there is no history without people; History is about People.Does History really repeat itself? No. You can’t repeat time. Models of HistoryA. Cyclical−from the Chineseex: Babylonian civilization > Fall of Babylonian Civilization > Rise of a new civilization > fall of the new civilizationB. Linear −History is a progression −Christian philosophers in the middle ages −Every vent is unique in its own way ex: technology is always improving −globalization-before, we were all separated but now we are connected (via technology, etc.) C. Spiral −Combination of the first two SourcesoPrimary−first-hand, original, eyewitness ex: interviews, surveys, journal (diary), artifacts, buildings, photos, video footage, autobiographies B. Secondary −Based on primary sources ex: reviews/critiques ~it’s tricky to identify whether its primary or secondary~Criticism −Criticize your sources; determine whether you can use the source or if it’s appropriate−Examine it ▪External Criticism −To determine the authenticity ex: 18th century paper pero naka bond paper=not authentic ex: Code of Kalantion (Americans paid so much money for it but it turned out to be a fake
▪Internal Criticism −Credibility −How factual was the data, is it accurate, who wrote it, can we trust it? Callao Man−Hominid 67000 B.P. (Before Present) Tabon Man −Homo sapiens sapiens, 40 000 B.P. Austronesian Migration Theory −linguistic and archaeological evidence(as opposed to the Wave Migration Theory) −most popular theory about migrationEx: similarities in languages from different places/countries oOut of Taiwan Hypothesis (OOT) −Taiwan to other places −More popular than Nusantao oNusantao−Mindanao to other places Barangay −Balangay/balongni > boat −30 to 100 households/families −Smallest political units of Tagalogs [Ilawod - down the river, lowland and coastal groups Ilaya