HIST2111SP-Week11B&12A - Expanding Freedom Slavery and...

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Expanding Freedom, Slavery and Indian Removal
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War of 1812 1. In June 1812, US declared war on England a) Reasons : (1) The British navy’s seizure of American citizens, (2) the blockades of American goods, (3) ongoing conflict with Indians on the frontier b) Unified Americans under banner of national expansion -- “On to Canada!” 2. The Split: (1)Generational; (2)Regional; (3)Native Communities a) Generational shift: Split between young, hotheaded representatives from the West and their more conservative seniors from the eastern seaboard ( War hawks: Henry Clay and John C. Calhoun) b) Indians: Pan-Indians (Tecumseh) vs. Accommodationists (Cherokees) 3. Wartime Setbacks: a) Canada : Americans defeated in Montreal and the British captured Fort Niagara and set Buffalo and nearby towns aflame b) Ill-prepared militia and military c) Smuggling d) The attack on the Capitol and Baltimore; Star Spangled Banner e) Hartford Convention (1814): MA, CT, RI, NH and VT 4. Wartime Impact: Ends with Treaty of Ghent; (a)Native Americans; (b)Andrew Jackson’s “victory” at New Orleans (1815) creates hero, myth and nationalism
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Review All were reasons for America’s decision to seek military means of settling her conflict with Britain in 1812, except : A. The British navy’s seizure of American citizens A. America’s desire to protect her sovereignty A. Americans agreed with France and Spain that Britain’s power in the world was too dominant A. Many Americans wanted to invade Canada and eliminate British ammunitions supplier
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New Sectionalism and Slavery Missouri and Slavery: Crisis and Compromise 1. 1819: US consisted of 22 states: half of which were slave states; Missouri applied for statehood; panic ensued because 23 states would upset the delicate balance of senators between slaves and free states 2. Tallmadge Amendment : NY Rep. James Tallmadge proposed a compromise: no slaves would be imported into Missouri in the future and would gradually emancipate those already living w/i its borders; defeated as southerners resisted attempt to limit expansion of slavery 3. Congress debates Missouri: Dec. 1819 - March 1820 4. NY Senator, Rufus King: asserted that Congress had the ultimate authority to set laws governing slavery; MD Senator, William Pinckney: stated that new states possessed the same rights as the original 13, to determine whether to allow slavery 5. Maine’s application for statehood offered a solution 6. Henry Clay of Kentucky (the Great Compromiser), Speaker of the House of Representative: proposed that MO join as a slave state and Maine as a free state; slavery would be prohibited from all Louisiana Purchase lands north of latitude 36° 30’ (all territory north of present-day MO and Kansas)
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Review True or False?
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