General Chemistry Review for Students

General Chemistry Review for Students - Compounds and Their...

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Compounds and Their Bonds A Review of General Chemistry
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The Periodic Table . . . Again
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Valence Matters • Number of outermost electrons that an atom has available to lose, gain, or share. • Valence electrons are the ones that take part in chemical changes, so they determine an atom's chemical behavior. • Octet rule
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Valence Simplified
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• Metals (Groups 1, 2, and 13) – Lose valence electrons – Become positively charged cations • Non-metals (Groups 15, 16, and 17) – Gain valence electrons – Become negatively charged anions Ionic Compounds
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Ionic Compounds • Groups 1, 2, and 13: + • Groups 15, 16, and 17: -
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• Ionic bond is formed by the attraction between oppositely charged ions. Ionic Compounds
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Covalent Compounds • Electrons are shared by atoms of nonmetals
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Number of Covalent Bonds and Lone Pairs Element Color in Molecular Model Kits Number of Valence Electrons Number of Bonds Number of Lone Pairs Hydrogen White 1 1 0 Carbon Black 4 4 0 Nitrogen Blue 5 3 1 Oxygen Red 6 2 2 Halogen Green 7 1 3
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Satisfying the Octet Rule
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Bond Polarity • Most bonds are neither completely ionic or covalent – They are polar covalent—electrons are shared unequally between 2 atoms – Results in partial positive and negative charges on atoms involved
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Electronegativity • Ability of an atom to attract bonding electrons • Fluorine has highest electronegativity – Electronegativity increases from L to R across each row – Electronegativity increases going up each column • Useful values
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Electronegativity • Electronegativity difference determines bond type – Differences between 0.0 to 0.4 are nonpolar covalent • H and H • C and H
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Electronegativity • Electronegativity difference determines bond type – Differences between 0.4 and 1.8 are polar covalent • H and Cl • C and N • C and O
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Electronegativity • Electronegativity difference determines bond type – Differences greater than 1.8 are ionic • Na and Cl • Mg and O
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Bond Lengths and Strengths • Multiple bonds are – Stronger than single bonds – Shorter than single bonds
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General Chemistry Review for Students - Compounds and Their...

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