chapter_09_part2 - Overlap and Bonding We think of covalent...

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Molecular Geometries and Bonding Overlap and Bonding We think of covalent bonds forming through the sharing of electrons by adjacent atoms. In such an approach this can only occur when orbitals on the two atoms overlap. 1
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Molecular Geometries and Bonding Overlap and Bonding Increased overlap brings the electrons and nuclei closer together while simultaneously decreasing electron- electron repulsion. However, if atoms get too close, the internuclear repulsion greatly raises the energy. 2
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Molecular Geometries and Bonding Hybrid Orbitals But it’s hard to imagine tetrahedral, trigonal bipyramidal, and other geometries arising from the atomic orbitals we recognize. 3
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Molecular Geometries and Bonding Hybrid Orbitals Consider beryllium: In its ground electronic state, it would not be able to form bonds because it has no singly-occupied orbitals. 4
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Molecular Geometries and Bonding Hybrid Orbitals But if it absorbs the small amount of energy needed to promote an electron from the 2 s to the 2 p orbital, it can form two bonds. 5
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Molecular Geometries and Bonding Hybrid Orbitals Mixing the s and p orbitals yields two degenerate orbitals that are hybrids of the two orbitals. These sp hybrid orbitals have two lobes like a p orbital. One of the lobes is larger and more rounded as is the s orbital. 6
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Molecular Geometries and Bonding Hybrid Orbitals These two degenerate orbitals would align themselves 180 ° from each other. This is consistent with the observed geometry of beryllium compounds: linear.
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