Chapter 1 Skeleton - Chapter 1 Introduction Matter and...

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Chapter 1. Introduction: Matter and Measurement 1.1 The Study of Chemistry • Chemistry: • is the study of properties of materials and changes that they undergo. • can be applied to all aspects of life (e.g., development of pharmaceuticals, leaf color change in fall, etc.). The Atomic and Molecular Perspective of chemistry Chemistry involves the study of the properties and the behavior of matter. • Matter: Physical material of the universe has mass & occupies space ~100 elements make up matter Property-distinguishing characteristic • Elements: composed of atoms -building blocks Unique names (Latin, Greek, or foundation place, discoverer) • Molecules: Combinations of atoms Properties of molecules linked to type of atoms & arrangement of atoms in molecule Why Study Chemistry? We study chemistry because: • it has a considerable impact on society (health care, food, clothing, conservation of natural resources, environmental issues etc.). • it is part of your curriculum---Biology major, chemistry major, etc., or you just need 3 credits of a lab science. 1.2 Classifications of Matter • Matter is classified by state (solid, liquid or gas) or by composition (element, compound or mixture). States of Matter • gas (vapor): no fixed volume or shape, conform to shape of container, compressible • liquid: Volume independent of container, no fixed shape, not compressible • solid: Volume independent of container, fixed shape, not compressible
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• Properties described on the molecular level: • gas: Molecules = far apart, high speed, frequent collisions. • liquid: Molecules closer together than gas. Slide & interact with each other • solid: Molecules pack tightly in defined arrangement Pure Substances Pure substances: Matter with fixed compositions & distinct properties. Elements cannot be decomposed into smaller subunits. Compounds= 2+ atoms Mixtures: combinations of 2+ pure substances, each substance maintains unique identity Elements: 116 known elements, vary in abundance in natural world. Unique names & symbols,, Periodic Table of the Elements Compounds: • Compounds are combinations of elements.
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