Angela Scott Revision.docx - Running head ADVANCED INFORMATION MANAGEMENT AND THE APPLICATIO Advanced Information Management and the Application of

Angela Scott Revision.docx - Running head ADVANCED...

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Running head: ADVANCED INFORMATION MANAGEMENT AND THE APPLICATIO 1 Advanced Information Management and the Application of Technology Angela M. Scott Western Governors University
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ADVANCED INFORMATION MANAGEMENT AND THE APPLICATIO 2 Advanced Information Management and the Application of Technology A. Investigated Disease Process Congestive heart failure remains a major health issue in the United States. There is over 5.8 million affected within the USA today, and 23 million worldwide (Bui, Horwich, & Fonarow, 2011). On an average there are more than 550,000 patients with their initial diagnoses yearly who are affected with Heart Failure (Bui et al., 2011). There is also a risk of one in five patients developing Heart Failure Syndrome (Bui et al., 2011). The diagnosis of Congestive heart failure brings about a huge risk of morbidity and mortality, despite treatment and the advanced care management (Bui et al., 2011). More than 2.4 million patients hospitalized have Heart failure as a primary or secondary diagnosis, and there are nearly 300,000 annual deaths that are attributed to heart failure (Bui et al., 2011). A1. Pathophysiology Congestive heart failure is a syndrome that can be caused by a variety of abnormalities, including pressure and volume overload, loss of muscle, primary muscle disease or excessive peripheral demands such as high output failure (Parmley, 1985). In the usual form of heart failure, the heart muscle has reduced contractility (Parmley, 1985). This produces a reduction in cardiac output, which then becomes inadequate to meet the peripheral demands of the body (Parmley, 1985). The 4 primary determinants of left ventricular (LV) performance are generally altered as follows: (1) There is an intrinsic decrease in muscle contractility. (2) Preload or left atrial filling pressure is increased, resulting in pulmonary congestion and dyspnea. (3) Although systemic blood pressure is often reduced, there is an increase in systemic vascular resistance (afterload), which can further reduce cardiac output. (4) Heart rate is generally increased as part
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ADVANCED INFORMATION MANAGEMENT AND THE APPLICATIO 3 of a compensatory mechanism associated with an increase in sympathetic tone and circulating catecholamines (Parmley, 1985). In patients with coronary disease, there is often an imbalance between myocardial oxygen supply and demand (Parmley, 1985). An increase in heart size may be particularly deleterious by increasing wall tension because of the Laplace relation and increasing myocardial oxygen consumption (Parmley, 1985). Chronic heart failure (CHF) is a clinical syndrome in which pathological stress or injury is associated with a failure of cardiac performance to meet the metabolic demands of the body and therefore results in clinical symptoms. -In the normal heart, cardiac output increases up to four-fold during exercise; this response is diminished in CHF.
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