Chapter 4 Skeleton - Chapter 4 Aqueous Reactions and...

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Chapter 4. Aqueous Reactions and Solution Stoichiometry Lecture Outline 4.1 General Properties of Aqueous Solutions A solution is: a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances A solution is made when: one substance (solute) dissolves in another substance (solvent) Solutions in which water is the solvent are called aqueous solutions (aq soln) . Electrolytic Properties All aqueous solutions can be classified in terms of whether or not they conduct electricity . electrolyte: substance that forms ions in solution, solution conductions electricity Example: NaCl Na + + Cl - nonelectrolyte: Do not form ions in solution and do not conduct electricity. Example: Sucrose Ionic Compounds in Water When an ionic compound dissolves in water, they dissociate . (NaCl) -in solution, the solid is no longer a well-ordered arrangement of ions. -each ion is surrounded by water molecule -stabilizes ions prevents cations & anions from reassociating Molecular Compounds in Water When a molecular compound (e.g. CH 3 OH ) dissolves in water, No ions are formed . If no ions are formed, then nothing to conduct electricity There are some important exceptions. For example, NH 3 ( g ) : React with H 2 O NH 4 (aq) + + OH (aq) - For example, HCl( g ) : Ionizes to yield H + (aq) + Cl - (aq) Strong and Weak Electrolytes Compounds whose aqueous solutions conduct electricity well are called strong electrolytes . These substances exist only as ions in solution. Example: NaCl (s) Na + (aq) + Cl - (aq) indicates no reassociation of ions Soluble ionic compounds = strong electrolytes Compounds whose aqueous solutions conduct electricity poorly are called weak electrolytes These substances exist as a mixture of ions and un-ionized molecules in solution . Ex. Acetic Acid
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Chapter 4 4.2 Precipitation Reactions Reactions that result in the formation of an insoluble product are known as precipitation reactions . A precipitate: an insoluble solid forms a reaction in solution Example: Pb(NO 3 ) 2 (aq) + 2KI (aq) PbI 2 (s) + 2K(NO 3 ) 2 Solubility Guidelines for Ionic Compounds The solubility of a substance at a particular temperature: A substance with a solubility of less than .01 Experimental observations have led to empirical guidelines for predicting solubility.
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