ch_07_skeleton%20notes

ch_07_skeleton%20notes - Chapter 7. Periodic Properties of...

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Chapter 7. Periodic Properties of the Elements 7.1 Development of the Periodic Table The periodic table is the most significant tool that chemists use for organizing and recalling chemical facts. Elements in the same column contain the same number of ________________________________. How do we organize the different elements in a meaningful way that will allow us to make predictions about undiscovered elements? The periodic table arises from the periodic patterns in the electronic configurations of the elements. In the first attempt Mendeleev and Meyer arranged the elements in order of increasing atomic weight. 7.2 Effective Nuclear Charge Effective nuclear charge ( Z eff ) is the charge experienced by an electron on a many-electron atom. The effective nuclear charge is not the same as the charge on the nucleus because of the effect of the inner electrons. The electron is attracted to the nucleus, but repelled by electrons that shield or screen it from the full nuclear charge. The nuclear charge experienced by an electron depends on its distance from the nucleus and the number of electrons in the spherical volume out to the electron in question.
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Periodic Properties of the Elements 79 As the average number of screening electrons ( S ) increases, the effective nuclear charge ( Z eff ) decreases. As the distance from the nucleus increases, S increases and Z eff decreases. 7.3 Sizes of Atoms and Ions Consider a collection of argon atoms in the gas phase. Now consider a simple diatomic molecule. Periodic Trends in Atomic Radii Atomic size varies consistently through the periodic table.
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Chapter 7 80 Periodic Trends in Ionic Radii Ionic size is important: Just as atomic size is periodic, ionic size is also periodic. In general:
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ch_07_skeleton%20notes - Chapter 7. Periodic Properties of...

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