ch_08_skeleton%20notes - Chapter 8 Basic Concepts of...

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Chapter 8. Basic Concepts of Chemical Bonding 8.1 Chemical Bonds, Lewis Symbols, and the Octet Rule The properties of many materials can be understood in terms of their microscopic properties. Microscopic properties of molecules include: When atoms or ions are strongly attracted to one another, we say that there is a chemical bond between them. Types of chemical bonds include: Lewis Symbols The electrons involved in bonding are called valence electrons . As a pictorial understanding of where the electrons are in an atom, we represent the electrons as dots around the symbol for the element.
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Basic Concepts of Chemical Bonding 91 The Octet Rule Atoms tend to gain, lose, or share electrons until they are surrounded by eight valence electrons; this is known as the octet rule . 8.2 Ionic Bonding Consider the reaction between sodium and chlorine: Na( s ) + ½Cl 2 ( g )  NaCl( s ) H f = 410.9 kJ/mol NaCl forms a very regular structure in which each Na + ion is surrounded by six Cl ions. Energetics of Ionic Bond Formation The heat of formation of NaCl( s ) is exothermic: Separation of the NaCl into sodium and chloride ions is endothermic:
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Chapter 8 92 Polyatomic Ions Polyatomic ions are formed when there is an overall charge on a compound containing covalent bonds. In polyatomic ions, two or more atoms are bound together by predominantly covalent bonds. 8.3 Covalent Bonding The majority of chemical substances do not have characteristics of ionic compounds. We need a different model for bonding between atoms. A chemical bond formed by sharing a pair of electrons is called a covalent bond. Both atoms acquire noble-gas electronic configurations.
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