Unit 6 Part 1 SS Study Guide.docx - Unit 6 Study Guide...

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Unit 6 Study GuideTextbook Readings NotesMaking War and Republican Governments 1776-1789 Patriots controlled local governments, giving them an edge in the battle for hearts and minds of ordinary men and womenPatriot leaders organized neighbors into militia units and recruited volunteers for the Continental armyEven though soldiers were almost naked, unpaid, and poorly fed, these men of every age and race held their groundMilitary mobilization created political commitmentoTo encourage Americans to support war, Patriot leaders encouraged them to take an active role in government common men exerted influencechange in politicspeople were now citizens, not subjectsBy raising democratic army and repudiating aristocratic and monarchical rule, the Patriots launched the age of republican revolution that would sweep Americas andthrow Europe into turmoilThe Trials of War, 1776-1778Declaration of Independence coincided with a full scale British military assault for two years, British manhandled Continental ArmyWar in the NorthOnce British resorted to military force, few European observers gave rebels a chance British had many advantages:oDemographic advantage much larger populationoHad access to wealth made by South Atlantic System/emerging Industrial Revolution oFinances paid for most powerful navy in the worldo48,000 Britons in army along with thousands of German HessiansoExperienced officer corps oSupport of thousands of American Loyalists and Indian tribes Cherokees, Iroquois Mohawks, Senecas, Cayugas, OnondagasMeanwhile, Americans were the underdogsoEconomically and militarily weakoNo strong central government to raise revenuesoNew Continental Army, led by George Washington, had 18,000 poorly trained recruits hastily assembled in VA and New England (NE)oOfficers had never commanded a large force or faced a disciplined European armyTo exploit military advantage, British prime minister, Lord North, assembled large invasion force under General William HoweoOrdered Howe to capture NYC and seize Hudson River, which would isolate NE Patriots from southern coloniesoAs Second Continental Congress was declaring independence in
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Philadelphia in July, 1776, Howe landed troops outside NYCBritish defeated Americans at Battle of Long Island and forced their retreat to Manhattan Island, where Howe beat Washington’s troops and nearly trapped themContinental army was outgunned and outmaneuveredoContinental Army retreated to NJ by December, British pushed them out of NJ into PAWinter came British halted campaignoAmericans had opportunity to catch British off guardoChristmas of 1776 Washington led troops back across Delaware River+ attacked Trenton, NJ surrender of 1,000 German soldiersoEarly January 1777 Continental army small victory at PrincetonoTriumphs, however, couldn’t mask British superiorityArmies and Strategies
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