Exam III Outline - 1 Population growth a Demographic...

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1. Population growth a. Demographic transition b. Female literacy and birth rates c. Population = birth – death + immigration – emigration d. R populations – large increase over short time e. K selected species – low population growth, resources to few young f. What populations are growing? Which are stable or going down? 2. Early life and evolution a. Trilobites – extinct during Permian b. 4.5 billion years old, life at 3.6 billion years ago c. Prokaryote and eukaryote (endosymbiosis for mitochondria, chloroplasts) d. Early life – microbial mats, extremophiles, “picoplankton”, SLIMEs e. E.O. Wilson’s patterns – life is everywhere, tiny protests, bigger animals in bigger ecosystems f. 3 domains of life i. Eukaryotes arise 1.8 billion years ago, protective O2 layer 800 million years ago g. Cambrian Explosion 540 – 500 million years ago h. Paleozoic – sea life dominant i. End of Ordovician – colonization of land j. Mezozoic – cycads (similar to ferns), breakup of Pangea, radiation of angiosperms (flowering plants) k. Mammals – end of Triassic, therapsids give rise to mammals, KT extinction allows for radiation and dominance 3. The Path to Evolution a. Aristotle and Plato, Roman Aurelius, Medieval repression, Renaissance and rationalism, 16-18 th century scientific revolution and life in Physical terms, 18 th century Enlightenment b. Charles Lyell and geology, uniformity of geologic processes, fossil record c. Erasmus Darwin – species change over time d. Lamark – inheritance of acquired characteristics e. Darwin’s Voyage i. Captain Fitzroy ii. 5 year journey, develops thoughts on Natural Selection from specimens, fossil records iii. thought inheritance was blending f. Wallace’s ideas – writes to Darwin, spurs him on g. Mendel – inheritance is particulate h. T.H. Huxley versus Bishop Wilberforce i. Herbert Spencer – survival of the fittest, social Darwinism 4. Natural Selection a. Population increase and limited resources - competition b. Mutation and sexual recombination makes variation
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c. Variations that increase fitness and ability to compete are passed on d. Selection on individuals results in evolution of populations, acts on phenotype (outward appearance) not genotype (the genes themselves) e. Types of selection – stabilizing, directional, diversifying f. Speciation – geographical separation (allopatry) or within the same place (sympatry) g. Evidence for evolution i. Hox genes (similar genes for development) ii. Biochemical similarities – DNA, RNA iii.
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