chem notes for 2nd test - Test content Nomenclature and...

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Test content Nomenclature and formulas Periodic Chart Lanthanides have 4f orbitals Balancing equations both regular and nuclear Memorize the nuclear particles: alpha, beta, etc. Chapters 3, 4, and 5 but primarily 4 and 5 Electronic configurations-“spd” and ground compared to the excited state --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Gamma rays dominated for several billion years. Then X-Rays, far-ultraviolet, near-ultraviolet, visible, near-infrared, far-infrared, microwaves, radar, and then TV, FM, and AM radiowaves. Losing or gaining 1, 2, 3, or 4 electrons only in chemistry. The # of electrons is determined by the element’s charge. Color is caused by an uneven # of electrons. Na+1 Cl-1 Na goes from 11 electrons to 10 because Na is in Group 1 and has a positive charge. Cl goes from 17 electrons to 18 because Cl is in Group 17 and has a negative charge. 1910: Neil Bohr’s design, fails to find neutrons (dumbass) Primary or principal quantum number: numbers on the left going from up to down on the periodic table Quantum No. Sub Shell Designate 1-------------- 1--------------- s 2-------------- 2--------------- s p 3-------------- 3--------------- s 2 p 6 d 10 4-------------- 4--------------- s 2 p 6 d 10 f 14 “s” is on the left, “p” is on the right. Group 1: s 1 Group 2: s 2 Group 13: p 2 Group 18: p 6 H: 1 s 1 Li: 2 s 1 Na: 3 s 1 (the third one from the nucleus) K: 4 s 1 11 Na 1s 2 , 2s 2 , 2p 6 , 3s 1
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Brackets indicate it is isoelectronic Al +3 [Ne] 17 Cl 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p5 Cl- 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 Cl- [Ar] The energy spent gaining an electron is equal to losing one.
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