PSYC 220 study guide - PSYC study guide Chapter 2.1 cells...

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PSYC study guide Chapter 2.1: cells of the nervous system The nervous system consists of two kinds of cells: neurons & glia Neurons receive information and transmit it to other cells The brain is composed of individual cells Golgi discovered a method of using silver salts to stain nerve cells so that it stained some cells without affecting  others at all & enabled researchers to examine the structure of a single cell Structures of an animal cell Membrane: structure separates inside of cell from outside environment; most chemicals cant cross it; a few  charge ions (sodium, calcium, potassium, chloride) can cross through protein channels); small uncharged  chemicals (water, oxygen, carbon dioxide) can diffuse across it Nucleus: contains chromosomes Mitochondria: performs metabolic activities; requires fuel & oxygen to function Ribosomes: sites at which the cell synthesizes new protein molecules Proteins provide building materials for the cell & facilitate various chemical reactions Endoplasmic reticulum: network of thin tubes, transport newly synthesized proteins Structure of a neuron Distinctive feature of a neuron is its shape Larger neurons have major components – dendrites, soma (cell body), axon & presynaptic terminals Motor neuron: has its soma in the spinal cord, receives excitation from other neurons through its dendrites &  conducts impulses along its axon to a muscle Sensory neuron: specialized at one end to be highly sensitive to a particular type of stimulation – different  kinds of sensory neurons have different structures Dendrites: branching fibers that get narrower near their ends; lined with specialized synaptic receptors which 
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