psych study group compiled

psych study group compiled - Section 1 Section 1 Hormones...

Info icon This preview shows pages 1–3. Sign up to view the full content.

Section 1 Section 1: Hormones, their control and cycles (p.65-66, 325-326, 331-334) Hormone : chemical messenger, secreted by a gland, travels in the blood, where it goes to a target tissue where it has effect. [Ex: Melatonin- helps to regulate body clock; rennin, angiotensin] o Chart of 15 important hormones and functions on page 64!! o Particularly useful for coordinating long-lasting changes in multiple parts of the body [ex: birds release a hormone that changes their eating and digestion to store energy to migrate ] o Two types of hormones that are composed of chains of amino acids Protein hormones: longer chains Peptide hormones: short chains Sex hormones o Steroid hormones: derived from cholesterol o Exert their effects in 3 ways Bind to the membrane receptors, like neurotransmitters Enter cells and activate certain kinds of proteins in the cytoplasm Bind to chromosomes where they activate or inactivate certain genes o The "Sex Hormones": special category of steroids released mostly by the gonads and to a lesser extent by the adrenal glands Androgens: a group that includes testosterone and several others, "male hormones" b/c men have higher levels Estrogens: includes estradiol and others, "female hormones" Androgens and estrogens are CATEGORIES of chemicals, NOT chemicals themselves ** Progesterone : another predominantly female hormone, prepares the uterus for the implantation of a fertilized ovum and promotes the maintenance of pregnancy o Sex-limited genes- genes that androgens and estrogens activate Control most of the differences b/w male and female animals Humans: breast development, facial hair Animals: antlers Increase or decrease apoptosis (cell death) in the brain, causing certain areas of the male brain to be slightly larger May be accredited to the Y chromosome behavioral consequence? Activating Effects of Sex Hormones : sex hormones do not CAUSE sexual behavior activates brain to respond a certain way to stimuli o Rodents: Remove male testes decline in sex drive; testosterone injections bring it back. Estrogen injections in females increase sensitivity of the pudendal nerve (transmits stimulation from pubic area to brain) o Sex hormones also bind to receptors increase responses to hypothalamus Part of the anterior hypothalamus area: sexually dimorphic nucleus (SDN ) larger in males than females
Image of page 1

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

Testosterone and estradiol prime the MPOA (medial preoptic area) to release dopamine strongly during sexual activity o Humans Men: Low testosterone = low sex drive. BUT impotence (inability to get erection) does NOT equal low testosterone Drugs used on sex offenders to lower testosterone levels: cyproterone (blocks the binding of testosterone to receptors); medroxyprogesterone (inhibits the hormone that stimulates testosterone production) drugs aren't always effective; bad side effects BUT new drug : triptorelin like med. Seems promising.
Image of page 2
Image of page 3
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.
  • Fall '07
  • Brunges
  • homosexual men, heterosexual men, GABAA receptor complex

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern