Anatomy - Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology Set#1 3 Essential Concepts to All Living Things Principle of Complementary of Structure and Function

Anatomy - Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology Set#1 3...

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Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology Set #1 3 Essential Concepts to All Living Things Principle of Complementary of Structure and Function - Organs are located and shaped in a way that allows them to perform their jobs effectively - Function always reflects structure Hierarchy of Structural Organization - Cells - Tissues - Organs - Systems Homeostasis - State of equilibrium maintained by physiological mechanisms Reproductive System - Overall function is to produce offspring - There are major differences in the reproductive system of males and females Survival needs - Needed to maintain life - Food, oxygen, water, correct temp. , and atmosphere pressure Homeostasis and Homeostatic Control Mechanisms - The ability to maintain stable internal conditions even though the external environment around it changes - Homeostatic Control Mechanisms - Variable: change; Receptor: monitor; Control Center: set point; Effector; response - Without homeostasis death usually occurs Negative Feedback Loops - Most common type - Brings back variable to initial setting - Nervous and endocrine help maintain - Goal: to prevent sudden and severe changes in the body Positive Feedback Loops - Least common type - Allows variable to continue in the same direction as the initial change - Typically leads to end result - Not related to homeostasis Homeostatic Imbalance - Most disease is considered to be a result of a disturbance in homeostasis - As we age, our homeostatic system becomes less efficient, as a result more
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health issues arise Set #2 Anatomical Position - Describes standard body position where the body is erect with feet slightly apart, hands down to the side with palms facing forward - Bilateral Symmetry Directional Terms - Superior (cranial): toward head end or upper part - Inferior (caudal): away from head or toward lower part - Anterior (ventral): toward the front of the body; in front of - Posterior (dorsal): toward or at the back of; behind - Medial: toward the middle - Lateral: toward outer edge of the body - Intermediate: between as medial and a more lateral structure - Proximal: closer to the body or point of attachment - Distal: further from body or point of attachment - Superficial: relating to depth, toward outer surface - Deep: relating to depth, more internal Regional terms - Axial division: head, neck, trunk - Appendicular division: limbs, appendages Body Planes and Sections - Sagittal plane: vertical division - Mid-saggital: goes directly down the middle - Parasagittal: offset from the midline Transverse or Horizontal Plane - Horizontal right-left - Divides body into superior and inferior parts - Also called cross section Frontal Plane - Run vertically - Divides body into anterior and posterior parts - Coronal plane Body Cavities - In the axial division there are two dorsal cavities - Cranial cavity (brain) - Spinal cavity (cord) Ventral Body Cavity - 2 subdivisions 1. Thoracic cavity - Pleural cavity: lungs
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- Mediasitrium: esophagus, trachea, heart - Pericardial cavity: caintains heart Abdominopelvic Cavity - Separated from the thoracic cavity by the diaphragm -
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