In 1775, the American Revolution began because the colonists rejected the tyranny of King George III. Angry about unfair/raising taxes on tea, sugar, and stamps, colonists organized protests such as The Boston Tea Party, Stamp Act Rebellion, and boycotts. In 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the Declaration of Independence which guaranteed certain inalienable rights/equality/independence. Thanks to the military leadership of George Washington, the Colonial army defeated the mighty British army. This established the life, liberty, pursuit of happiness (democracy) for the new United States, and the American Revolution would be an example a “city on a hill” you might say for the entire world. Post French and Indian War ● British major problem was DEBT Conflict with American Indians in new territory formerly New France ● Proclamation of 1763-drew line at Appalachians ○ British limited western expansion across the Appalachian Mountains ■ Solves the conflict with the American Indians legislatively ● Proclamation of 1763—the treaty that ended the French and Indian War (Seven Years’ War in Europe) ○ did two things that angered many white colonialists in North America. ○ 1) It granted religious tolerance to Roman Catholics in Quebec, ○ 2) and it forbade further settlement by Europeans west of the Appalachians ○ This made economic advancement for the average American more difficult ● Greenville -first chancellor of Exchequer ○ Wanted to fix the British debt ○ Realized he must provide gov. services and tax more and wanted more aggressive legislation Parliament and the King ● Crown’s mismanagement of a needed reform of the administration of the British Empire was combined with the refusal of colonial politicians to accept those changes in the practice of salutary neglect ● Great Britain kept Canada and evacuated Martinique and Guadaloupe ● Parliament had a large debt to pay and he tried to pay this by cutting spending money ● Corruption and patronage were at the heart of the eighteenth-century government ○ House of Lords-inherited titles ○ Royal patronage-King George II-”the king’s friends” in Parliament ● 1766-Rebellious Americans would denounce King George as a tyrant and a “royal brute” The Sugar Act ● Reinforced the Molasses Act of 1733 ● Greenville intended his Sugar Act of 1764 to clean up customs collection and to generate revenue to reduce Britain’s debt ● Greenville reduced the duty on molasses-**Lowered taxes on molasses and sugar ○ In turn it is collected instead of evaded ● There were protests in New England and New York where molasses was a major import ● Established vice admiralty courts in ports
○ A british magistrate in colonies to enforce Sugar Act ○ Colonists sees this as an occupation ■ Want protection but don’t want to pay taxes Political Representation: MPs-members of Parliament Colonial British Colonial assemblies Parliament (elected by white male landowners) Elected by colonists Direct representation
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