Chapter 1Are Men and Women Different?Interplanetary theory on difference and gender inequality. For example, psychologistsJohn Gray’s (1992 in Kimmel and Holler, 2017) explanation of communication, love, need, feel etc. The challengeDifference is not only about classification, separation and socialization of genders into their gendered social roles.Classification and separation involve hierarchical ranking, power and inequality.Societies differ in the assignment of roles (i.e., cultural variations).The two tasks of any study of gender is to explain difference and domination (inequality) by answering the following questions:Why do societies differentiate people based on gender? (Perceived differences between men and women, kind of differences, division of labour and gender as the basis of difference).Why are nearly all societies based on male dominance? (Unequal gender division of labour, unequal distribution of resources - men get more resources than women, men’s and women’s tasks are valued differently).•Two schools of thought:oBiological determinism (Nature)oDifferential socialization (Nurture)•Biological arguments are fundamental in most explanations of difference. For example:oSex differences:Anatomical, hormonal, chemical, and physical differences between men and womenoThe challenge: There is a wide range of maleness and femaleness. Give examples.Why Different?Two schools of thought:Biological determinism (Nature)Differential socialization (Nurture)Differential socialization: Differences between men and women are based on their socialization.