Fall_2006_memory - Introduction to Memory Processes From...

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Introduction to Memory Processes From Learning to Memory: *Learning and Social Adaptation Depend on our Memory Capacities *When learning occurs, memories ( specific types of knowledge seen in different patterns of motor, emotional, and verbal behavior ) are established There is no learning without memory When memories are destroyed, what was learned is altered fundamentally Videoclip Segment from Zimbardo’s “Discovering Psychology” PBS series: *Physical reality of Memory: Memories make lasting alterations in structure and function of Central Nervous System. Psychologists have called these physical traces of memory “Engrams”. *3 Types of Engrams or memory traces : *1) Procedural Knowledge or Memory (what you know how to do in behavior) ; *2) Semantic or Declarative Knowledge or Memory ( what you know, as verbally represented); *3) Episodic Memory (recollection of experiences, ( stories , another type of verbal or declarative knowledge process ) *Engrams determine your personal perspective on life. Where exactly are our memories, our “engrams”? *Karl Lashley trained rats to learn mazes, then removed increasingly large areas of cortex. *His Conclusion: memory is not localized in any specific area of brain
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(implication: memories are distributed across areas of cortex). *Zimbardo suggests perhaps Lashley was correct about the location of complex memories but the conclusion may not apply to simple memories. Experiment on specific location of one classically conditioned “memory” *Richard Thompson’s work with rabbits suggests simple memories may be localized rather precisely. He maps the electrical activity of nerve cells that relate to an actual learned behavior as demonstrated in a particular classical conditioning process: *Diagram the classical conditioning (stimulus substitution) process in Thompson’s experiment: *What is the: UCS, UCR, CS, CR? *UCS: *UCR: *CS: *CR: * Where is the memory for this particular CR located in the brain? *Thompson’s A: Interpositis nucleus, a cubic millimenter of tissue in the cerebellum. *After surgery, the memory for the learned response is completely obliterated; all that is left is the reflex response (which is what?), the same reponse shown before learning ; destroying that tissue permanently abolished the memory for the learned response *Could the animal learn that CR again?
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