Fall_2006_learning_intro_philos_classical_operant_social -...

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Unformatted text preview: Introduction to the Psychology of Learning Overview of the Next 2-3 Lectures *Locate Psychology of Learning within the History of Psychology and Philosophy of Psychology *Review Major Concepts and Applications of Mainstream "Learning Psychology" Classical Conditioning (Ivon. Pavlov to Present) Operant Conditioning (Burrius F. Skinner to Present) Social Learning Theory (Albert Bandura is principal founder; Seligman's work is also central) Historical Roots of Modern Learning Theory *Pavlov was a physiologist--he stumbled into research on "associative learning" and developed idea of "classical conditioning" *The Legacy of Edward Thorndike: "The Law of Effect" (1911) *consequences of behavior determine its survival Idea of "contingencies of reinforcement" built upon Thorndike's *Legacy of B.F. Skinner (1938, The Behavior of Organisms) concepts Philosophical Changes in Psychology: From Structuralism to Behaviorism and Beyond *The History of Modern Psychology began with Wilhelm Wundt, who founded what came to be seen as a "school" of psychology focused on the "structure" of consciousness, the building blocks of perception. Proponents of this point of view were called "structuralists" and their school "Structuralism" *Structuralists, led by Wundt, studied the elements of perception ("atoms of the mind") by using the methodology of "introspectionism" *Psychology was revolutionized by John Watson in 1920's, who articulated a radical philosophy of psychology called "Behaviorism." *Watson and the Behaviorists rejected introspection and the study of consciousness in favor of the objective analysis of behavior alone. They said psychology should be about the study of what can be seen and observed, it should be an S-R Psychology: *Stimuli and Responses are observable and objective, and should be the sole object of study in psychology *Skinner popularized behaviorism further, extending its reach in academic psychology through the 1960's, continuing to today Philosophical Changes in Contemporary Views of Learning: *Learning is no longer conceived as S-R psychology alone. * Instead, S-O-R models dominate (where O = "Organismic" events: internal, cognitive, mental events with neurobiological underpinnings) cognitive processes (attitudes, thinking, perception, vicarious learning, "mental maps"), emotional processes, biological mediating variables on S-O-R conceptualizations *Examples of "O" variables: *Social Learning Theory rests Learning I: Basic Concepts In Classical Conditioning: *Classical Conditioning involves a process of what Pavlov called "stimulus substitution" *(a process of "associative learning" wherein stimuli are associated and one comes to substitute for another). Pavlov's Original Discovery and Terminology, Diagrammed: UCS CS *UCS UCR CR = UNLEARNED stimulus; CS=? *UCR = UNLEARNED response; CR=? *The UCS automatically elicits the UCR (reflex) *So for Pavlov the UCS was _______________ and the UCR was _________________ *CS (previously neutral S) is paired repeatedly, with temporal contiguity, with UCS response (CR) that closely resembles the UCR *(Note: *Over Trials (temporal pairings), CS comes to automatically elicit a CR is not identical to the UCR reflex, but instead is a learned automatic associative response with similar form) *So for Pavlov the CS was _________________ and the CR was ___________________ Next figures portray Pavlov's canine salivation experimental situation: More Principles of CC (be able to define each term and give examples) : *Once a stimulus acquires conditioned properties through stimulus substitution, the brain also learns to: *Generalize among stimuli (stimulus generalization): *Discriminate among stimuli (stimulus discrimination): *Extinguish learned associations (extinction): Next Slide shows more principles of CC: *Acquisition of CR's: * * Extinction of CR's: Spontaneous Recovery of CR's: Beyond Spit: Emotional Learning Involves CC *Positive and Negative emotions are acquired initially and maintained as a result of classical conditioning processes. *Think, e.g., about why you "like" the products you use, or the foods you prefer? Has illness ever conditioned you to strongly dislike some foods? Why does some music, or sensations of physical touch, or smells, make you "happy"? Why are you anxious with some people, or slow to trust others, or grumpy under particular circumstances? *Point: our feelings are learned through associative processes Videoclip: The Case of Little Albert. *John Watson Applied Pavlov's Associative Learning (Classical Conditioning) to Albert's Emotional Learning of Fear trials. Videoclip illustrates Mowrer's Two-Factor Theory of Learning: Factor 1: *Here-in we see original footage of what today would be unethical learning *1) Fear is learned through classical conditioning: previously neutral stimuli acquire their fear-inducing properties via stimulus substitution, generalization, and discrimination *Stimulus Substitution: UCSUCR CSCR (above is Factor 1 in Mowrer's 2-factor theory) Factor 2: *2) Fear is maintained through Operant Conditioning, also called Instrumental Conditioning. Specifically: *avoidance responses are Operant behaviors (they operate on the environment), also called Instrumental behaviors (they have an instrumental effect on the environment). Avoidance behaviors are often strengthened by their consequences. This strengthening is called "reinforcement". involves an increase in the behavior preceding it. Remember, all reinforcement *Avoidance behavior leads to fear reduction because the consequence of the behavior involves removal of an aversive stimulus. Thus avoidance is "negatively reinforced", which is to say it is strengthened by the reduction in fear. (an increase in avoidance behavior follows the removal of fear/anxiety) *so, avoidance learning--withdrawal, avoidance behaviors--increases in frequency because it is negatively reinforced; AND, this guarantees that extinction cannot occur because the learner effectively never confronts the CS again! For Little Albert, Identify Examples of the following CC principles: *Stimulus Substitution (factor 1, above): *Stimulus Generalization (which animals?): *Stimulus Discrimination (which animals?): *Extinction (Principle applied by Mary Cover Jones to de-condition children's fears). How would you "extinguish" Little Albert's fear?-- Systematic Desensitization: A Modern Treatment for "Phobias" that Follows Mary Cover Jones Historical Example *systematic desensitization (SD) takes classical conditioning into realm of cognition: visual imagery and mental associations are actively engaged *What is SD? A "cognitive-behavioral" method of treatment for phobias using the principle of "counterconditioning". a CC procedure for weakening a CR by associating the CS (fear-producing stimulus) with a new response incompatible with the fear The therapist, with the client, develops a hierarchy of feared situtions (CS's; e.g., seeing pictures of snakes to napping with a Boa around your neck). *Counterconditioning: *The SD Technique: *Next, person is taught relaxation + coping imagery and skills *Then, client applys learned skills while imagining CS's. What Happens When Phobic Individuals Practice SD? *conditioned fear, a CR, is counterconditioned by newly developed incompatible responses.) *Note: practice involves repeated trials, which are forms of pairings of stimuli! *Result: Diminishment of Fear achieved through an increase of capacity and motivation for active coping/management of anxiety-producing situations. How Does SD Work? *When/if we pair new and incompatible responses (relaxation, normal breathing, coping thoughts/images, voluntary parasympathetic activity in general) with images of CS's, this leads to new CS-CR associations over trials, called "higher-order conditioning". cortical processes to inhibit fear-output by amygdala. *The new learning creates a "safety memory" which can be activated by *Thus extinction processes of old fear learning typcially involves learning fear-inhibition behaviors via counterconditioning Related Principles *EXPOSURE and Extinction are fundamental to behavioral change as result of SD *In C. Conditioning Terms, breaking old associative bonds (CS/UCS relations) through exposure, extinction, and re-conditioning leads to learning of new associative bonds A Theoretical Distinction: *Note the difference: Systematic Desensitization VS. In Vivo vs. In Vivo Desensitization? Desensitization *what is nature of exposure in SD *A: * * In SD exposure is ... Whereas in In Vivo Desensitization exposure is ... Gary Larson's Images of "Exposure" Learning II: Basic Concepts in Operant Conditioning: *Reinforcement, Punishment. *Positive and Negative Reinforcement *Shaping *Schedules of Reinforcement and their effects on learning Videoclip: B. F. Skinner's World View Shaping *Consequences of Behavior determine its survival (as in Thorndike's "law of effect") *Complex sequences of behavior are learned gradually, through selective positive reinforcement or shaping of "successive approximations" of target behavior In video-clip, the pigeon is shaped first to turn in a circle, then eventually to solve math problems and play the piano *Examples: toilet training; learning a motor skill; learning "manners"; reading; good study habits; social charm and influence Reinforcement: The Fundamental Idea *Reinforcement refers to the process of strengthening or increasing the probability of behavior *Any Stimulus that increases/strengthens the behavior which precedes it is called a reinforcer; there are positive and negative reinforcers (examples below) Positive Reinforcement *When a pleasant/positive stimulus follows a behavior and strengthens it, the behavior is said to have been positively reinforced. *Positive Reinforcers: Money (strengthens what sort of behaviors?: Class list); Good Grades; privileges; hugs; high fives; pleasant drug effects on consciousness; social regard/approval; promotions and bonuses; warmfuzzies and other goodies from your honey-bun *Is alcohol positively reinforcing? What are the positive reinforcers for drinking alcohol in our culture? Negative Reinforcement *When a negative/aversive stimulus is terminated/removed following a behavior, resulting in the strengthening of that behavior, the behavior is said to have been negatively reinforced. *A Negative reinforcer is the removal of an aversive stimulus, which leads to an increase in the behavior that preceded the removal of the negative stimulus. Examples of Reinforcement (Positive and Negative)Events: *a parent gives in to a whining child. What behavior is negatively reinforced here? *{Hint: Identify the "aversive stimulus" that is removed; in this case it is ______________; then, identify which behavior that immediately preceded the removal of the aversive stimulus is likely to increase in frequency; in this case it is ___________________} What behavior is positively reinforced here? behavior is negatively reinforced here? behavior is positively reinforced here? *saying "I'm sorry" terminates Mom's menacing glances What What *anxiety is decreased by performing compulsive rituals What behavior is negatively reinforced here? *headaches stop when aspirin is injested; What behavior is negatively reinforced here? anxiety; What behavior is negatively reinforced here? *staying at home reduces overwhelming social *Injesting Drugs increases when it removes boredom, restlessness, anxiety, depression; What behavior is negatively reinforced here? Punishment: The Fundamental Idea *Punishment refers to the process of weakening or reducing the probability of behavior *Any Stimulus that weakens the strength of, or reduces the probability of, a behavior is called a punisher *Examples: Electric Shock; Social Disapproval; Monetary fines; jail terms; spankings; cold shoulders; averted eyes; suspension of privileges; "Bad" Grades *Is an aversive stimulus always a punisher?--the case of the class clown *Why is punishment often ineffective?--the case of the speeding ticket Schedules of Reinforcement: *Interval Schedules vs. Ratio Schedules *Fixed Schedules vs. Variable Schedules *Fixed Interval, Fixed Ratio, Variable Interval, Variable Ratio (can you generate an example of each?) FI: *Example: FR: *Example: VI: *Example: VR: *Example: Hard work in school or business is reinforced only occasionally, but these reinforcement occasions often produce strong and lasting effects Acquisition and Maintenance of Behavior *Fixed Ratio Schedules--especially FR 1:1 schedules, or "continuous reinforcement"-- produce fastest learning, but behavior extinguishes relatively quickly if contingencies change *Partial or Intermittent Reinforcement (best example: variable ratio schedules) produces slower learning of behavior, but these behaviors are the most resistant to extinction Start with FR: 1:1 then "fade" to partial schedules with increasingly infrequent reinforcement Learning III: Basic Concepts in Social Learning Theory *Animal and Coaching Teaching Tip: *Philosophically, Social Learning Theory was the start of the break from Behaviorism by re-introducing the importance of internal mediating forces--the "O's" in the so-called S-O-R model contrasting with Watson's S-R model. *Social Learning Theory Focuses on Observational Learning Phenomena, or Imitation Learning. This type of learning also is sometimes called "Modeling" Learning involves "Vicarious" Learning (or vicarious conditioning, vicarious reinforcement) from observation of "Models." *(Definition #3 of "vicarious" at http://www.m-w.com/cgi-bin/dictionary : experienced or realized through imaginative or sympathetic participation in the experience of another) *Social/Observational Next Slide Shows Results from a Classic Experiment by Albert Bandura: Revealing the Influence of Modeling of Aggressive Behavior in Social Learning *What is the IV here? *What is the DV here? *Can you describe why these results challenge the strict view of strict behaviorists like Watson and Skinner? Social Learning Theory (Continued) *Studies of Modeling seemed to prove, to the Social Learning Theorists, that Direct Reinforcement and Punishment is Unnecessary for Learning. *We do not need to be shaped directly; our behavior is influenced by observational learning and cognitive processes *We learn not only by direct reinforcement, punishment, and schedules of reinforcement, but also through vicarious reinforcement and/or punishment Four Cognitive "O" factors in S-O-R model are critical for learning: *attention: * retention: *reproduction: *motivation: *Relation to Edward Tolman's Latent Learning/Cognitive: We know more than we show in performance Seligman's Helplessness Model *Triadic experiment (yoked design) {see pages 22-30} Group 1: Group 2: Group 3: *Results: *Seligman's conclusions: *Helplessness, Social Learning, and the S-O-R model *Human analog studies? ...
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This note was uploaded on 04/01/2008 for the course PSY 202 taught by Professor Henriques during the Fall '08 term at Wisconsin.

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