Through direct experience with animals, we come to anticipate that dogs will bark and that birds will chirp. This best illustrates associative learning . Blinking in response to a puff of air directed to your eye is a UR Pavlov noticed that dogs began salivating at the mere sight of the person who regularly brought food to them. For the dogs, the sight of this person was a(n) Conditioned Stimulus Long after her conditioned fear of dogs had been extinguished, Marcy experienced an unexpected surge of nervousness when first shown her cousin's new cocker spaniel. Her unexpected nervousness best illustrates spontaneous recovery. A year after surviving a classroom shooting incident, Kim-Li still responds with terror at the sight of toy guns and to the sound of balloons popping. This reaction best illustrates generalization. If you have a “frightening experience” immediately after hearing a strange sound, your fear may be aroused when you hear that sound again. This best illustrates classical conditioning. Researchers condition a flatworm to contract when exposed to light by repeatedly pairing the light with electric shock. The electric shock is a(n) unconditioned stimulus. Months after she was beaten up by a robber, Courtney's heart pounds with fear merely at the sight of the place in which she was attacked. The location of her attack is most likely a(n) conditioned stimulus for Courtney's anxiety. After being bitten by his neighbor's dog, Miguel experienced fear at the sight of that dog but not at the sight of other dogs. This best illustrates the process of discrimination. The infant Albert developed a fear of rats after a white rat was associated with a loud noise. In this example, fear of the white rat was the CR In teaching her son to play basketball, Mrs. Richards initially reinforces him with praise for simply dribbling while standing still, then only for walking while dribbling, and finally only for running while dribbling. She is using a procedure known as
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