FEMA P-58-2.pdf - Seismic Performance Assessment of Buildings Volume 2 \u2013 Implementation Guide Second Edition FEMA P-58-2 December 2018 FEMA P-58-2

FEMA P-58-2.pdf - Seismic Performance Assessment of...

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Unformatted text preview: Seismic Performance Assessment of Buildings Volume 2 – Implementation Guide Second Edition FEMA P-58-2 / December 2018 FEMA P-58-2 / December 2018 Seismic Performance Assessment of Buildings Volume 2 – Implementation Guide Second Edition Prepared by APPLIED TECHNOLOGY COUNCIL 201 Redwood Shores Parkway, Suite 240 Redwood City, California 94065 Prepared for FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY Michael Mahoney, Project Officer Robert D. Hanson, Technical Monitor Washington, D.C. SECOND EDITION PROJECT TEAM APPLIED TECHNOLOGY COUNCIL Christopher Rojahn Jon A. Heintz (Project Executive) Ayse Hortacsu (Project Manager) PROJECT MANAGEMENT COMMITTEE Ronald O. Hamburger (Project Technical Director) John Gillengerten William T. Holmes John D. Hooper Stephen A. Mahin Jack P. Moehle Khalid Mosalam Laura Samant Steven R. Winkel PROJECT STEERING COMMITTEE William T. Holmes (Chair) Lucy Arendt Deborah Beck Christopher Deneff H. John Price Jonathan C. Siu Jeffrey R. Soulages Eric Von Berg Williston Warren (ATC Board Contact) STAKEHOLDER PRODUCTS TEAM Laura Samant (Team Leader) David Mar Lori Peek Maryann T. Phipps Sharyl Rabinovici L. Thomas Tobin PERFORMANCE PRODUCTS TEAM John Gillengerten (Team Leader) David R. Bonneville Dominic Campi Vesna Terzic PRODUCTS UPDATE TEAM John D. Hooper (Team Leader) Russell Larsen Peter Morris STAKEHOLDER PRODUCTS CONSULTANTS Sandra L. Grabowski Taline Mitten Stacia Sydoriak Jennifer Tobin-Gurley PERFORMANCE PRODUCTS CONSULTANTS Shreyash Chokshi Travis Chrupalo Erica Hays Nirmal Kumawat Abe Lynn Daniel Saldana Vinit M. Shah Udit S. Tambe Duy Vu To Peny Villanueva PRODUCTS UPDATE CONSULTANTS Robert Bachman Jack Baker Dustin Cook Scott Hagie Angie Harris Curt Haselton Wyatt Henderson Monica Huang Gilberto Mosqueda Farzad Naeim Barbara Rodriguez Kathrina Simonen Siavash Sorooshian Katherine Wade Farzin Zareian FIRST EDITION PROJECT TEAM APPLIED TECHNOLOGY COUNCIL Christopher Rojahn (Project Executive) Jon A. Heintz (Project Manager) Ayse Hortacsu PROJECT MANAGEMENT COMMITTEE Ronald O. Hamburger (Proj. Tech. Director) John Gillengerten William T. Holmes (ex-officio) Peter J. May Jack P. Moehle Maryann T. Phipps (ATC Board Contact) STEERING COMMITTEE William T. Holmes (Chair) Roger D. Borcherdt Anne Bostrom Bruce Burr Kelly Cobeen Anthony B. Court Terry Dooley Dan Gramer Michael Griffin R. Jay Love David Mar Steven McCabe Brian J. Meacham William J. Petak RISK MANAGEMENT PRODUCTS TEAM John D. Hooper (Co-Team Leader) Craig D. Comartin (Co-Team Leader) Mary Comerio C. Allin Cornell Mahmoud Hachem Gee Heckscher Judith Mitrani-Reiser Peter Morris Farzad Naeim Keith Porter Hope Seligson STRUCTURAL PERFORMANCE PRODUCTS TEAM Andrew S. Whittaker (Team Leader) Gregory Deierlein John D. Hooper Yin-Nan Huang Laura Lowes Nicolas Luco Andrew T. Merovich NONSTRUCTURAL PERFORMANCE PRODUCTS TEAM Robert E. Bachman (Team Leader) Philip J. Caldwell Andre Filiatrault Robert P. Kennedy Helmut Krawinkler Manos Maragakis Eduardo Miranda Gilberto Mosqueda Keith Porter RISK MANAGEMENT PRODUCTS CONSULTANTS Travis Chrupalo D. Jared DeBock Armen Der Kiureghian Scott Hagie Curt Haselton Russell Larsen Juan Murcia-Delso Scott Shell P. Benson Shing Mohamed Talaat Farzin Zareian STRUCTURAL PERFORMANCE PRODUCTS AND FRAGILITY DEVELOPMENT CONSULTANTS Jack Baker Dhiman Basu Dan Dolan Charles Ekiert Andre Filiatrault Aysegul Gogus Kerem Gulec Dawn Lehman Jingjuan Li Eric Lumpkin Juan Murcia-Delso Hussein Okail Charles Roeder P. Benson Shing Christopher Smith Victor Victorsson John Wallace NONSTRUCTURAL PERFORMANCE PRODUCTS AND FRAGILITY DEVELOPMENT CONSULTANTS Richard Behr Greg Hardy Christopher Higgins Gayle Johnson Paul Kremer Dave McCormick Ali M. Memari William O’Brien John Osteraas Elizabeth Pahl John Stevenson Xin Xu FRAGILITY REVIEW PANEL Bruce Ellingwood Robert P. Kennedy Stephen Mahin VALIDATION/VERIFICATION TEAM Charles Scawthorn (Chair) Jack Baker David Bonneville Hope Seligson SPECIAL REVIEWERS Thalia Anagnos Fouad M. Bendimerad Notice Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of the Applied Technology Council (ATC), the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), or the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). Additionally, neither ATC, DHS, FEMA, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, expressed or implied, nor assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, product, or process included in this publication. Users of information from this publication assume all liability arising from such use. Cover photograph – Collapsed building viewed through the archway of an adjacent building, 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan earthquake (courtesy of Farzad Naeim, Farzad Naeim, Inc). Preface In 2001, the Applied Technology Council (ATC) was awarded the first in a series of contracts with the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) to develop Next-Generation Performance-Based Seismic Design Guidelines for New and Existing Buildings. These projects would become known as the ATC-58 series of projects. The overall program was separated into two major phases of work: Phase 1 – Developing a Methodology for Assessing the Seismic Performance of Buildings; and Phase 2 – Developing Performance-Based Seismic Design Procedures and Guidelines. This report is one of three principal products of the Phase 1 work, which were first published in 2012, and have since been updated under the Phase 2 work: • FEMA P-58-1, Seismic Performance Assessment of Buildings, Volume 1 – Methodology, Second Edition • FEMA P-58-2, Seismic Performance Assessment of Buildings, Volume 2 – Implementation Guide, Second Edition • FEMA P-58-3, Seismic Performance Assessment of Buildings, Volume 3 – Supporting Electronic Materials and Background Documentation, Third Edition The three volumes together describe the seismic performance assessment methodology for individual buildings, as well as the development of basic building information, response quantities, fragilities, and consequence data used as inputs to the methodology. The procedures are probabilistic, uncertainties are explicitly considered, and performance is expressed as the probable consequences, in terms of human losses (deaths and serious injuries), direct economic losses (building repair or replacement costs), and indirect losses (repair time, unsafe placarding, and environmental impacts) resulting from building damage due to earthquake shaking. The purpose of this Volume 2 –Implementation Guide, Second Edition is to provide users with step-by-step guidance in the development of basic building information, response quantities, fragilities, and consequence data used as inputs to the methodology. FEMA P-58-2 Second Edition Preface v To allow for practical implementation of the methodology, work included the collection of fragility and consequence data for most common structural systems and building occupancies, and the development of an electronic Performance Assessment Calculation Tool (PACT) for performing the probabilistic computations and accumulation of losses, which were also updated as part of the Phase 2 work. Updates include technical improvements to the methodology, and revisions to the underlying fragility and consequence data, to take advantage of the latest research, and to bring results into better alignment with expectations based on the performance of buildings in past earthquakes. Phase 2 also included the development of additional volumes intended to expand and complete FEMA P-58 series of products to communicate seismic performance to stakeholders, quantify the seismic performance capability of typical code-conforming buildings, and provide performance-based design guidance to assist decision-makers in choosing between seismic design criteria and making seismic design decisions. The FEMA P-58 series of products is the result of the collaborative effort of more than 200 individuals, across all phases, involved in the development of the methodology and subsequent products and reports. Phase 1 consultants were involved in the development of the basic assessment methodology, collection of available fragility data, estimation of consequences, development of supporting electronic tools, implementation of quality assurance procedures, and beta testing efforts. ATC is indebted to the Phase 1 leadership of Ron Hamburger, who served as Project Technical Director, Bob Bachman, who served as Nonstructural Performance Products Team Leader, John Hooper and Craig Comartin, who served as Risk Management Products Team Leaders, Andrew Whittaker, who served as Structural Performance Products Team Leader, and the members of the Phase 1 Project Management Committee, including John Gillengerten, Bill Holmes, Peter May, Jack Moehle, and Maryann Phipps. ATC is also indebted to Andy Merovich, Structural Performance Products Team Member, for his lead role in the development of the First Edition of this volume. Phase 2 consultants were responsible for the update of all Phase 1 products, and the development of new performance-based design guidance and stakeholder guidance. ATC is indebted to the Phase 2 leadership of Ron Hamburger, who continued to serve as the Project Technical Director, John Gillengerten, who served as Performance Products Team Leader, John Hooper, who served as Products Update Team Leader, Laura Samant, who served as Stakeholder Products Team Leader, and the members of the vi Preface FEMA P-58-2 Second Edition Phase 2 Project Management Committee, including Bill Holmes, Steve Mahin, Jack Moehle, Khalid Mosalam, and Steve Winkel. ATC would also like to thank the members of the Phase 1 and Phase 2 Project Steering Committees, the Fragility Review Panel, the Nonstructural Performance Products Team, the Performance Products Team, the Products Update Team, the Risk Management Products Team, the Stakeholder Products team, the Structural Performance Products Team, the Validation/Verification Team, and the many consultants who assisted these teams. The names of individuals who served in these groups, along with their affiliations, are provided in the list of Project Participants at the end of this report. ATC acknowledges the Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center (PEER), and its framework for performance-based earthquake engineering, as the technical basis underlying the methodology. In particular, the work of Tony Yang, Jack Moehle, Craig Comartin, and Armen Der Kiureghian in developing and presenting the first practical application of the PEER framework, is recognized as the basis for how computations are performed and losses are accumulated in the methodology. Special acknowledgment is extended to C. Allin Cornell and Helmut Krawinkler for their formative work in contributing to risk assessment and performance-based design methodologies, and to whom this work is dedicated. ATC also gratefully acknowledges Michael Mahoney (FEMA Project Officer) and Robert Hanson (FEMA Technical Monitor) for their input and guidance in the conduct of this work, and Bernadette Hadnagy, Peter N. Mork, and Carrie Perna for ATC report production services. Ayse Hortacsu ATC Director of Projects FEMA P-58-2 Second Edition Jon A. Heintz ATC Executive Director Preface vii Table of Contents Preface.............................................................................................................v List of Figures...............................................................................................xv List of Tables ............................................................................................ xxiii 1. Introduction ...................................................................................... 1-1 1.1 Purpose and Scope.................................................................... 1-1 1.2 Limitations ............................................................................... 1-2 1.3 The Performance Assessment Process ..................................... 1-2 1.3.1 Assessment Types ....................................................... 1-2 1.3.2 Performance Measures ................................................ 1-3 1.3.3 Analysis Methods ........................................................ 1-4 1.4 Updates to Implementation Tools ............................................ 1-5 1.5 Organization and Content ......................................................... 1-7 2. Building Performance Model .......................................................... 2-1 2.1 Introduction .............................................................................. 2-1 2.2 Building Characteristics ........................................................... 2-1 2.2.1 Project Information...................................................... 2-1 2.2.2 Building Information ................................................... 2-2 2.2.3 Population Model ........................................................ 2-9 2.3 Fragility Specifications and Performance Groups .................. 2-11 2.3.1 Fragility Specifications Provided in PACT ............... 2-12 2.3.2 Demand Directionality .............................................. 2-16 2.4 Identification of Vulnerable Structural Components and Systems................................................................................... 2-16 2.4.1 Structural Steel Elements (B103) .............................. 2-17 2.4.2 Reinforced Concrete Elements (B104)...................... 2-20 2.4.3 Reinforced Masonry Elements (B105) ...................... 2-24 2.4.4 Cold-Formed Steel Structural Elements (B106)........ 2-25 2.4.5 Wood Light Frame Structural Elements (B107) ....... 2-25 2.4.6 Structural Performance Groups ................................. 2-26 2.5 Identification of Vulnerable Nonstructural Components and Systems ............................................................................ 2-28 2.5.1 Exterior Nonstructural Walls (B107 and B201) ........ 2-29 2.5.2 Exterior Window Systems (B202) ............................ 2-31 2.5.3 Roof Elements (B30) ................................................. 2-33 2.5.4 Partitions (C101) ....................................................... 2-33 2.5.5 Stairs (C201) ............................................................. 2-34 2.5.6 Wall Finishes (C301)................................................. 2-35 2.5.7 Raised Access Floors and Floor Flooding (C302) .... 2-36 2.5.8 Suspended Ceilings and Ceiling Lighting (C303) ..... 2-37 2.5.9 Elevators and Lifts (D101) ........................................ 2-38 FEMA-P-58-2 Second Edition Table of Contents ix 2.6 2.7 x 2.5.10 Domestic Water Distribution (D202) ........................ 2-39 2.5.11 Sanitary Waste Piping (D203) ................................... 2-39 2.5.12 Chilled Water and Steam Piping (D205 and D206) ......................................................................... 2-40 2.5.13 Chillers, Cooling Towers, and Compressors (D303)........................................................................ 2-40 2.5.14 HVAC Distribution Systems (D304) ......................... 2-42 2.5.15 Packaged Air Handling Units (D305)........................ 2-43 2.5.16 Control Panels (Table D306) ..................................... 2-44 2.5.17 Fire Protection (D401) ............................................... 2-44 2.5.18 Electrical Service and Distribution (D501) ............... 2-45 2.5.19 Other Electrical Systems (D509) ............................... 2-45 2.5.20 Equipment and Furnishings (E20) ............................. 2-46 2.5.21 Special Construction (F20) ........................................ 2-48 2.5.22 Nonstructural Performance Groups ........................... 2-48 Collapse Fragility Analysis..................................................... 2-49 2.6.1 Nonlinear Response History Analysis ....................... 2-50 2.6.2 Simplified Nonlinear Analysis .................................. 2-50 2.6.3 Judgment-Based Approach ........................................ 2-55 2.6.4 Collapse Modes and PACT Input .............................. 2-57 Residual Drift Fragility ........................................................... 2-58 3. Building Analytical Model and Performance Assessments .......... 3-1 3.1 Introduction............................................................................... 3-1 3.2 Building Analytical Model ....................................................... 3-2 3.2.1 Nonlinear Response History Analysis ......................... 3-2 3.2.2 Simplified Analysis ..................................................... 3-3 3.2.3 Demand Directionality................................................. 3-4 3.3 Intensity-Based Assessment ..................................................... 3-4 3.3.1 Nonlinear Response History Analysis ......................... 3-4 3.3.2 Simplified Analysis ................................................... 3-11 3.3.3 Review Results .......................................................... 3-28 3.4 Scenario-Based Assessment ................................................... 3-32 3.4.1 Nonlinear Response History Analysis ....................... 3-34 3.4.2 Simplified Analysis ................................................... 3-38 3.4.3 Review Results .......................................................... 3-42 3.5 Time-Based Assessment ......................................................... 3-42 3.5.1 Nonlinear Response History Analysis ....................... 3-43 3.5.2 Simplified Analysis ................................................... 3-45 3.5.3 Review Results .......................................................... 3-52 4. Example Application: Intensity-Based Performance Assessment Using Simplified Analysis ................................................................ 4-1 4.1 Introduction............................................................................... 4-1 4.2 Obtain Site and Building Description ....................................... 4-1 4.3 Select Assessment Type and Performance Measure................. 4-3 4.4 Assemble Building Performance Model ................................... 4-3 4.4.1 Project Information ...................................................... 4-3 4.4.2 Building Information ................................................... 4-4 4.4.3 Population Distribution................................................ 4-5 4.4.4 Structural Components ................................................ 4-5 4.4.5 Nonstructural Components ........................................ 4-10 4.4.6 Collapse Fragility and Collapse Modes ..................... 4-16 Table of Contents FEMA-P-58-2 Second Edition 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 4.4.7 Residual Drift Fragility ............................................. 4-19 Select Analysis Method and Construct Building Analytical Model ..................................................................................... 4-19 Define Earthquake Hazards .................................................... 4-19 Analyze Building Response ................................................... 4-24 4.7.1 Estimate Median Story Drift Ratio and Dispersion ... 4-24 4.7.2 Estimate Median Peak Floor Acceleration and Dispersion.................................................................. 4-26 4.7.3 Estimate Median Residual Story Drift Ratio and Dispersion.................................................................. 4-27 Input Response Data and Calculate Performance................... 4-28 Review Results ....................................................................... 4-29 5. Example Application: Time-Based Performance Assessment Using Nonlinear Response History Analysis.................................. 5-1 5.1 Introduction .............................................................................. 5-1 5.2 Obtain Site and Building Description....................................... 5-...
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