Psychology Review Chapters 6 8 9 10

Psychology Review Chapters 6 8 9 10 - Psychology Review...

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Psychology Review Chapters 6, 8, 9, 10 Chapter 8 -Language is a symbolic code used in communication. - Linguistic relativity hypothesis - Language and thinking are closely related phenomena. Although we often think in visual images, sounds, and images of movements- and some thought may involve no conscious images at all- much of our thinking takes place in the form of silent conversations with ourselves. Stated by Benjamin Whorf. - Phonemes are the smallest units of sound in a language - Morphemes are the smallest units of meaning in a language - Semantics - The meaning of what is said. The function of language is to say something to someone. The “something” is the meaning (the semantic content) that is communicated through language - Syntax - the rules of a language that allow an infinite number of understandable utterances to be generated - Generative language - an infinite set of utterances can be made using a finite set of elements and rules. - Surface structure- the superficial spoken or written structure of a statement. Deep structure - the underlying structure that holds the statement’s meaning. Both distinctions were made by linguist Noam Chomsky. - Intelligence - refers to the cognitive abilities of an individual to learn from experience, to reason well, and to cope effectively with the demands of daily living. - General intelligence - intelligence is a single general factor that provides the basis for the more specific abilities that each of us possesses. We are more likely to develop strong mechanical, musical, artistic, and other kinds of abilities. Specific intelligence - intelligence is not a single general factor but a collection of many separate specific abilities. Most of us are much bettering some cognitive skills than others, rather than being generally good at everything. -Greater interconnectedness of the neurons means that the brain can process information more quickly. The brains of persons with higher g do have more neural connections and they process a variety of simple cognitive tasks more quickly. - Fluid intelligence - the ability to learn or invent new strategies for dealing with new kinds of problems. Crystallized intelligence - the ability to use previously learned skills to solve familiar problems.
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