Criminology Study Guide 3

Criminology Study Guide 3 - Chapter 5 1 Three factors that...

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Chapter 5 1. Three factors that structure the decision to commit a crime a. The type of crime b. the time and place of crime c. the target 2. Permeable neighborhoods - those with a greater than usual number of access streets from traffic arteries into the neighborhood. Chosen for theft and break-ins because they are familiar and well traveled, they appear more open and vulnerable, and they offer more potential escape routes. 3. offender- specific- criminals are not simply automatons who engage in random acts of antisocial behavior Offense- specific - offenders will react selectively to the characteristics of particular offenses 4. Robbers demonstrate rational choice by their selective choice in time, day, victim, and targets 5. Drug use as rational behavior: 1. start taking drugs when they believe that the benefits of substance abuse outweigh its cost. 2. Approaching drug dealing as a business proposition. 6. Stages of drug marketing a. Mutual societies- involve drugs shared among friends at parties. Casual/recreational use b. Periodic markets- drug sites that provide relatively low incomes because sales can be made only at limited times during the day. c. Fixed-site neighborhoods- neighborhoods in which demand is so great that dealers will remain in a single location all day. d. Drug marts- neighborhoods that are so drug-infested that law-abiding citizens have moved out and competing drug dealers have taken over. 7. Defensible space - crime can be prevented or displaced through the use of residential architectural designs that reduce criminal opportunity. 8. Diffusion- hidden benefits to situational crime prevention. Occurs 1. when efforts to prevent one crime unintentionally prevent another and 2. when crime control efforts in one locale reduce crime in other nontarget areas 9. Crime displacement - beefed-up police patrols in one area may shift crimes to a more vulnerable neighborhood. Does not solve the general problem of crime 10. General deterrence - crime rates are influenced and controlled by the threat of criminal punishment 11. Incapacitation effect - If more criminals are sent to prison the crime rate should go down. The shorter the span of opportunity, the fewer offenses they can commit during their lives
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