WeldersHandbook-Finch.pdf - N K t� ffil UlOfIDIE iJ(Q ~!IA$fllll1l ~l1Drnll!l®[email protected]©~INIIE9 M~s mJIIOfffi MID'iflltm WrEIUIDOINlfffi RJCHARD FINCH

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Unformatted text preview: '. :;'... N K t· '. ! ffil UlOfIDIE iJ'(Q) ~!IA$fllll1l ~l1Drnll\!l®9 @Dl©~INIIE9 M~s mJIIOfffi MID) 'iflltm WrEIUIDOINlfffi RJCHARD FINCH, S.A.E., A.W.S. l I i 1HPBoob Published by the Penguin Group Penguin Group (USA) Inc. 375 Hudson Street, New York, New York 10014, USA Penguin Group (Canada), 90 Eglinton Avenue East, Suite 700, Toronto, Ontario M4P 2Y3, Canada (a division of Pearson Penguin Canada Inc.) Penguin Books Ltd., 80 Strand, London WC2R ORL, England Penguin Group Ireland, 25 Sr. Stephen's Green, Dublin 2, Ireland (a division of Penguin Books Lrd.) Penguin Group (Australia), 250 Camberwell Road, Camberwell, Victoria 3124, Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pry. Ltd.) Penguin Books India Pvt. Led., 11 Community Centre, Panchshccl Park, New Delhi-I IO 017, India Penguin Group (NZ), 67 Apollo Drive, Mairangi Bay, Auckland 1311, New Zealand (a division of Pearson New Zealand Ltd.) Penguin Booh (South Africa) (Pry.) Ltd., 24 Srurdee Avenue, Rosebank, Johannesburg 2196, South Africa Penguin Books Ltd., Registered Offices: 80 Strand, London \XIC2R ORL, England While the author has made every etlorr to provide accurate telephone numbers and Internet addresses at the rime of publication, neither the publishcr nor the author assumes any responsibility for errors, or for changes char occur after publication. further, publisher does not have any control over and docs not assume any responsibility for author or third-parry wehsires or their content. Welder's Handbook Copyright© 2007 by Richard Finch, S.A.E., A.\XI.S. Cover design by Tresa Rowe/Bird Studios Cover phoros courtesy Lincoln Electric/Jenny Ogborn Editing, Design and Production by Michael Lutfy All rights reserved. No pan of this book may be reproduet·d, scannnl, or disLribun.:d in any primed or dc:urouic form wirhuuc permission. Please do not participah: in or encourage piracy of copyrighted materials in violation of the author's rights. Purchase only amhorized editions. HPBooks is a registered trademark of Penguin Group (USA) Inc. First edition: April 2007 ISBN: 978-1-55788-513-5 PRINTED IN THE UNITED s·Ji\TES OF ;\,\!ERICA 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 NOTICE: The information in this hook is true and complete ro rhe best of our knowledge. All recommendations on pares and procedures are made without any guarantees on the pan of the author or the publisher. Tampering with, altering, modif),ing, or removing any emissions-control device is a violation of federal law. Author and publisher disclaim all liabiliry incurred in connection wirh the use of this information. Acknowledgments Introduction v Chapter 1: Metal Basics and Heat Control 1 Chapter 2: An Overview of Welding, Brazing and Cutting 8 1v ·~ Chapter 3: Welding Equipment 15 Chapter 4: Welding Rods, Wires and Fluxes 22 Chapter 5: Welding Safety 30 Chapter 6: Fitting and Jigging 37 Chapter 7: Cleaning Before \Nelding 50 Chapter 8: Gas Welding and Heat Forming 54 Chapter 9: Torch Cutting 74 Chapter 10: Gas Brazing and Soldering 80 Chapter 11: Arc Welding 86 Chapter 12: MIG Welding 97 C.hapter 13: TIG Welding 109 Chapter 14: Plasma Cutting 127 Chapter 15: Special Welding Processes 131 Chapter 16: Welding Projects 136 Chapter 17: Welding Certification and Training 146 149 ·Glossary ===·=·=--=-· = = = = = G:[-&,-J·-=--- = = = = · -==::=..-·-· -~=====-- --- --,.=-====== - - - - ~.;i;.;2:_ ....:..:.....;.-~:....-· ,_....,....,--==-:-'"' . . . . . , .. , .. .- .. ·,·:.. First and Second Edition Ackmlowledgments Mr. Rick Wuchner of So-Cal Air Gas, Vemura, CA; Mr. Jeff :--.J'oland of HTP America, Inc., Arlington Heights, IL; Mr. Bill Berman of Daytona Mig, Inc., Daytona Beach, FL; Mr. Ed Morgan of Lincoln Electric Co., Sama Fe Springs, CA; Mr. Ray Snowden of Allan Hancock College, Santa Maria, CA; Mr. Seth Hammond and Mrs. Tannis Hammond of Specialty Welding, Goleta, CA; Mr. Tom Giffen and Mr. Ron Chase of Western Welding, Goleta, CA; Mr. Dave Williams of Williams Lo-Buck Tools, Norco, CA; Mr. Michael Reitman of United States Welding Corporation, Carson City, NV; Ms. Darlene Tardiff of Harbor Freight Tools, Inc., Camarillo, CA; lvlr. Phil Pilsen of Pro-Tools, Tampa, FL; Mr. Henry Hauptfuhrer of The Eastwood Co., Malvern, PA; Ms. Lisa \Vest of Smith Equipment, Watertown, SD; Mr. Dale Wilch of Dale \'{filch Sales, Kansas City, MO; Mr. Hal Olcurr ofVictor-Thermadyne, Demon, TX; Mittler Bros Tools, Huntsman Welding Helmets, Salt Lake City, UT; Mr. Dick Casperson of .Miller Electric Co., Appleton, WI; and two friends who helped, :Mr. Dal<: Johnson and .i\fr. Jerry Jonc.:5. both of Goleta. CA. Third Ec!lfifti®l!ll Acknow!edgme!l1llts In addition t,, the people that were named in the fost and st.:wnd cLiitions of Wl'ld,·; ~- Ha}l(/hook, I wam to rec.:ognize other people too. These are: Scott Skrjanc. Events i\farkcring \:anagcr. Lincoln Electric Co.; Jenny Ogborn. Photographic Dept, Lincoln Electric Co.; i\·likc Pankoratz, lvliller Electric Co.: Ray 1'udlak and Phil Baldwin of Cru11arron \X'elding Supplies; Jason \Xlood'i. -\larnogordo, Ni\!; Jim Holder. Tularns1. Ni\!: John Cilsdort, :\lamogordo, N1v[; i'v[ikc: Reid, owner of Crown \Xr"elding and fndmtrial ~upply of .-\Limogorde>. N:\l: ,rnd Douie Hammack. v:ho run:, \'alkT \Xldding and Gasses uf Alamogordo, '.\. \ [. I\ ,. '' ,_:__ i!'IHllE WOlliU,W llDIEPErM[OJS 0~ WIEIL!lllDNG \X'clding is an an, and it is also a means to achieve an end result. For instance, welding is a process used to build automobiles and airplanes, and it is also a process u,cd w huild stronger buildings. highwa~· bridges, hydroelecrric power planrs, and probably the chair you are sitting in while you read this page. If you possl'SS a television set and a refrigerator. ~pot weld:ng was med to make those appliances. If you are reading this p.1ge in a bookstore or a library, the bookshclve~ probablr utilize wdded br.1,lcrs and base, to hold the shelves in place. If every weld in the world should give way at OJKl', our world would fall apart. Automohib would fall into piles of metal in the parking lots, airplanes would fall from the sky in pieces. ships would come ap.m and sink, and even the hcd you sleep in would fall to the floor. But welding is a satisf)·ing talent that almost :1m•pne can ckvclop. I really t:njoy building things our of metal. The welding table that I designed and built for a projcLt in thi~ book i, one of the most useful welding projects that I have ever completed. Regardless of your reason for wanting tn learn 11, wdd. ur tu be J bcrru welder, mu will surely want to huild this rablc before y·nu tr~· any othn projects be,,lll\\ rhi, '.':(·!ding t.1bk will q1pp()rt rn;u1~· r1f\·r1ur futurl· projects. If you plan to huild lob of wdde<l project.<,, then you m;n- 11anr tu build a much larger wdding table, up to~· x 8' in size. learning to weld is similar to learning to pla\· J pi.mu. \u.i ,,lll he playing ··c:hup,t1lk, · 111th just a f~-w minutes' i11s111ictio11. but it cakes a lot (If practice lo phi· \!(11:trt tin th,· 11i:tnc,. [ ih·1,11'-· 1·,111 l 111 k"cun 10 run ,1 wdd lie.id in iu\r ,1 !~11 rninutes. bur rou wili havl· tu ,pcn,i time p,,H_t1ung t()li' \t>ll huild ;i 1,-,ii, ,v_. ,.11, .-uq,!,111c. or ,tn ocean-going ,1!umin111n yacht. The proje(t\ that l have dn·L·i,ipi..·d ior ,, ,u 111 ( haptcr I(, ;11n11<lc .1 lnw-pr,:ssun: wa\· ro practice your \'.·dding befort: you tackle tht: really important f'Wicu·. This is a typical back driveway trailer building project, using a new Lincoln lnvertec 205-T AC/DC welder that can do both TIG (Hell-Arc) and stick/arc welding. The project is also supported by a small Harris Gas welding and cutting torch and portable carrier. The trailer is upside down for fitting the wheels and axles. V ·------·--=- ·.·Z_:~.-~ -----~-- ·-·- ~--:._:_._~~--....:.,:._- ~~ - , =---- ·- --~.:.. .. --- - ' --- -- .. ~ --- -~ -~·- -~-- ::::-··-- _- A WORD ABOUT THE TIIIIRD EIIJITIOM This third edition of Welder's Handbook comes at an exciting time in the history of welding. Electronic technology has experienced a major change in many areas of our lives, in things like cell phones that fir in your shirt pocket, that can send and receive calls anywhere in the world, and in laptop computers that have more power than the school bus-sized computers that existed when the first edition of this book was wriccen. And the same is true for arc welding equipment char was the size of a refrigerator when the first edition was written, chat now is about the size of a lunch pail and almost as portable. New arc welding machines now can also be plugged into 220 volt and 230 volt shop current and then simply be taken away in the trunk or front seat of your car and plugged in to 110 volt house current and used to weld just as well as they were doing in the shop environment. And all this new welding technology has occurred in the past ten years since the second edition of this book was written. Ocher new technology has emerged in the form of television programs on the Learning Channel, on The Discovery Channel. and do-it-yourself shows, such as lvlonster Gamge featuring Jessie James; Ove1haulin', featuring Chip Foose (I worked side-by-side with Chip for more than two years at the ASHA Corp. in Goleta, CA, in the mid l 990s); American Chopper: Omnge County Choppers, foacuring the Tuttle family; how-co shows featuring Boyd Coddington and other good shows char demonstrate how experts weld and form metal. One important suggestion: If you don't know much about welding, rhen read the glossary in the back of this book for explanations of terms normally used in the welding trade, and refer co it anytime y·ou don't understand a word in the book. -Richart! Finch Chapter 1 E ICS EJ N RL Tony Stewart's Nextel Cup race car gets some MIG (wire feed) welding repairs prior to the ne>tt race. Notice the cleanliness of the welding shop. Your welding sl11ip should be clean too! Photo Courtesy Lincoln Electric Co. T here arc man~· factors involvc~1 in producing good welds in metal: the equipment used, the filler met.ii used, the preparation of the parts to be wdded, a11J especially, the correct ,1pplicarion of hear ro the weld. In manual (not automatic) welding, the welder is the ,irrisr ,.,,h,:, knows how much heat to appl\' to produce good wdd~. Before you can weld, you must learn how to control heat, and ha~ e some funda~1enral knowledge of the basic rvpe, 1J! mdals :md their properties. 1 SO!IJlil, UOlmlID, GAS My high school physics reacher, Larry Grundy, taught me that almost all matter on this earth is in three basic forms: (I) Solid (frozen), (2) Liquid (molten), and (3) Gas (\·apor). At the time, I don't think that I believed him, but as I got older and tried things my own way, I began to sec that he was right. I learned by experience that temperature, and especially heat control, plays a very important pare in how the earth exists. And it really plays a very important part in welding. Note: When I was in high school, the 4th state of matter had not yet been explored to any extent, but the 4th state of matter is a serious thing today. It is called "plasma" and Webster's Dictionary defines it as "a collection of charged particles containing about equal numbers of positive and negative ions and electrons, exhibiting some of the same properties of a gas, but differing from a gas in being a good conductor." This is important when cutting metal with a plasma cutter as we do in welding today. Please refer to the glossary on page 149 for more information. h. 11pk: Metal can exist in these rhree frirrm, just like ice. Stl'cl i, solid at or below its 2,700°F melting point. Ice is 1 ,uiid ,it or below its 32°F melting point. Heat the ice on a kitchen stove ro :n°F and it becomes liquid water, then heat ir m 2 I 2°F and ir hegins ro boil and vaporizc. l ku steel to 2,786°F and ir becomes liquid or molten. then continue to heat it to over 5,500°F and it begins to vaporize. In welding, whrn the liquid/molten weld pudd!t' !see glos\.lt)',. begins to solidify, we say it is freezing. Cen.1in kinds of arc welding rods arc called "fust freeze rods." \\!hile you are learning to weld, keep the example of ice cubes on the kitchen stove in mind. If you get the metal too hot, it will vaporize, just like the ice cuhes <lo. Study the charts in this chapter to get a better idea of the melting and boiling points (temperatures) of the many kinds of metals that are weldable. COLOR CIIIANGES OF METAl!.S As you practice your welding, brazing and soldering skills, you will recognize the color changes in metals as the metal is heated and cooled. Study the charts in this chapter to better understand the temperatures that result in specific colors when you are heating steel. Aluminum does not exhibit the same kind of color changes chat steel does, but it goes from shiny to dull as it is heated, then to shiny again as it begins to melt. Stainless steel does not go through the number of color changes that mild steel and carbon steel go through in increasing temperatures, but stainless steel does turn red just a - " -:--~ .,. · - - ~ ~ - - 2 - - - - ~ _-:-:-:-,-,..........,, .. . ..·,··-~---•·-----•-:..'<______ :!. __ - . ·- ·.-- ., _-_ _:-.-.~- ---=-~~.'.'~"!:.".c;..~-""-.:;,:-_ --_-_:,-;:·_-::, ..... ,..-;;:-_:::-·_- ___ -·---·--~ .~-~ ~ ~~- ------~-~- -·.-.· · .... --,,,-. = - .. -~~~~ ==··!t:'· :=::C···-,Z%S::,5 -~~~ WELDER'S HANDBOOK 'il'EMPERATURES OF SOLDEIIUfMG, !BRAZING & WELDOMG PROCESSES Soldering, Lead Solder: 250-800°F ( l 2 l-427°C) Brazing, Brass and Bronze: 800-l,200°F (427-649°C) TIG Welding: 5,000°f (2,760°C), Arc-Temp Variable Oxyacetylene: 6,300°F (3,482° C) Flame Temp, Adjustable Oxyacetylene Cutting: 6,300°F (3,482° C), Flame Temp, Adjustable Arc Welding: 6000-10,000°F (3,316-5,538° C), Arc Temp Plasma-Arc Cutting: 50,000°F (27,760° C), Arc Temp Keep these working temperatures in mind. Each process-welding, brazing or soldering-is different. If you overheat the weld bead, you could "vaporize" your project! Master temperature control, and you will become a much better welder. before it melt:-. Sirnilarly, bras~ ;md copper do not ~how the ~aml' color changes that steel docs. Brass just gets lighter in color, then shiny as it melts; copper just gets red. then dark as it reaches melting temperature. [email protected] ~~AT l·tN. ,tudv the chart labeled Tempm1t11res of \oldcring. Rriumg 1111d \\?riding ProcesSt's. You ,,·iii \ec .i ;c,ni-,2r.11urc :.t11gt· f;ir c.1ch pro1._-c\,. Suldni11~ i, rh, l•"\l',r 1en1n,·ri1111,, r:tr11w 1 Sll'T "l 800''F Ht,ii'ilL; i\ rlw :\:°\l highesi ~,e111pn:Hure Llllt-:c .n I \" 1.(1()( r· f·. ;rn;I Fu~in11 wdJing at d~e 111-.:lnng pt)int of d1t mer al lO be wcld~d. :\cxr ,rndy 1hc cl1.m mzr.hts. Aldri11g A,inr• ,~; Bniiin~ h)i111, n(\Iculs. From this chart, rou \\'ill begin ·ro undu:,r,md whr \ ou must contr~)I the he,H in order to produce the results you want, which is good. strong metal joining techniques. I11 every welding, hra1.ing and soldering process that I describl' and instruct in this book, I tell mu to control the heat. 'loo cold will produce a w~ak bond or no bond at all. and roo much hear will boil or vaporize I he hond and even ruin ~·our metal. ~I ii I YYPIES OIF U\fillEVAH.. A~ you read this Sl'.ction, I strong!~· sugges1 you refer to rhe ~lussary for further definitions of terms you do not lullr understand. , Before you cin begin welding, you must know what kind of metal you are going to weld. Usually, but not alwav~, rou ~hould weld the :-ame kind of metals togerl;er. ·Thnc will be cases where you \'. ill The welder in this picture is making a MIG (Wire Feed) welding repair to the front frame of this Nextel Cup Monte Carlo race car that is driven by Bobby Labonte. Photo Courtesy Lincoln Electric Co. want to weld stainless steel to low alloy carbon steel, or solder brass to aluminum. In the applicable chapters. I will show rou how to do it. But firsr, study the following paragraphs and photos to find nut hnw IO idenrif)· metals. lre1rrous &. MOllllmferiroans Meta~s FnruU\ indicates rlut a metal has iron co1Jt,'nt. :t nu~~n•,'l. >:nn-frrrnus ind rh:n ir i.~ .1rrncr,:d to means that the metal docsnt h·:~\'l' am iron content ind rhat it is nor magnetic. Cast iro,;, mild steel ,rnJ 1._hrome molvbd~num Sled are ferrous metal!>. .-\luminum, hras~, copper, gold, silver. lead and magnesium are non-frrrous metals and they are not magnetic and an: not .mractcd tu a magnet. In welding terms, ferrou:- and non-ferrous._ metals are considered to be "dissimilar metals" bur they can be joined by various welding, brazing or soldering processes. For instance, I'll sho\\' you a special Cronatron ( ) brand of solder that will join any and all metals if a tensile .mength of rhe bond at 7,000 psi would be acceptable. In this book, I will also show you how ro braze copper co cast iron and even how to do repair welds without heal. ~fore on that later. The non-heat welding process is called JB Weld and you will have ro read the appropriate chapter of the book ro find out how to do it. Now, let's hecorne rnmt' familiar with the variom types of metals. ___.. , METAL BASICS AND HEAT CONTROL WIEHGl!fl'ii'S Mlli:ILYDMffii f«llDIMY$ & B(HIUMlin 'P®DIMY$ ®IF MIE'ii'AILS Metal Weight lbs/ 3 Melting Point op {C) Boiling Point op {C) Aluminum Bronze Brass Carbon Chromium Copper Gold Iron Lead Magnesium Manganese Mild.Steel 166 548 527 219 431 555 1205 490 708 109 463 490 1,217 (658) 1,566-1832 1,652-1724 6,512 (3600) 3,034 (1,615) 1,981 (1,083) 1,946 (1,063) 2,786 (1,530) 621 (327) 1,100 (593) 2,300 (1260) 2,462-2786 (l ,350-1,530) 2,645 (I ,452) 1,761 (960} 449 (231) 3,263 (I 795) 5.432 (3,000) 786 (419) 2,550 4442 (2450) (850-1000) (900-940) Nickel Silver Tin Titanium Tungsten Zinc 4130 Steel 555 655 455 218 1186 443 495 -3500F TITANIUM-- -3250F -3000F 4,703 (2595) 5,380 (2971) 5.430 (2999) 3,137 (1725) MILD STEEL-- -2500F J., 9-0 P73'J) ) .-·. ti,O 10 (221 O) -2250F COPPER7 GOLD 5.450 (3049) - BRASS--c 2000F -1750F -1500F ALUMINUM 7__ MAGNESIUM- -1250F -1000F 4,120 (227 l) 10,706 (5930) 1,663 (906) 5,500 (3051) -2750F This illustrated thermometer will help you visualize the melting points of various metals. It will also give you an idea of how much heat you will need to weld various metals. LEAD TIN- -SOOF -250F HUMAN BODY - - -OF Melting points of metals vary widely. Use this chart to determine how hot you will need to get the metal in order to fusion weld it. If available, I have also included boiling temperatures for each metal, where they are available, a temperature you should surely avoid. Cast Iron-This metal is usually rough-textured because of how it-is manufactured. A cast-iron part is formed by pouring molten iron into a sand mold, rhus giving it the form and texture of the interior of the mold. Typical cast-iron parts include automotive engine blocks, exhaust manifolds, manual-transmission cases, older lawn mower and gar~en-tractor engines, and early-style farm equipment. Where it is cut with a lathe, saw, grinder or whatever, cast iron usually has a gray, grainy appearance. When ground with a high-speed grinding wheel, red sparks are generated. Case iron is ferrous, or magnetic. It can be arcwelded with stick-type electrodes or brazed or fusion-welded with an oxyacetylene torch. Forged Steel-This is a rough metal, bur smoother than cast iron. It's used for most engine connecting rods, some crankshafts, axle shafts and some chassis components. Forging steel is done by hammering a red hot steel billet (see glossary) into the desired shape in a forging press. Machined, cut or ground, forged steel is light gray or silver inside. Grinding forged steel creates yellow or white sparks. Forged steel is a ferrous metal. Ir can be welded with gas, arc, TIG, MIG methods. But, because steel forgings are intended for high-load/highfatigue applications, such parts should be welded using the best methods available-TIG, or DC arc-if welded at all. Usually, damaged forged-steel parts should be rep...
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