Sociology Midterm - Alexis Palmquist SOCIOLOGY MIDTERM 1...

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Alexis Palmquist 11/7/07 SOCIOLOGY MIDTERM 1. Explain, what Peter Berger meant when he said that the sociological  perspective involves a process of seeing through the facades of social  structure. What Berger meant was that as a sociologist, the underlying  assumption is that things are not as they seem. And in order to ask questions  like that, we must call into question social structure, such as existing myths,  stereotypes, and official dogma.  The sociological assumption that provides  the basis for this critical stance is that the social world is man-made, and  therefore, not sacred. 2. Discuss why our personal judgments and interpretations are inferior  as sources of data upon which to base sociological analysis. Personal judgments and interpretations are inferior as sources of data  because they are affected by prevailing myths and stereotypes.  Sociologists  do not use personal beliefs to explain behavior because we are part of the  world that is to be explained.  For this reason, sociologists must obtain  evidence that is beyond reproach.  3. Discuss the different types of social groups and how each affects the  kind and quality of relationships members have with each other. The two different kinds of groups are called Primary groups and  secondary groups. Primary groups are intimately involved with each other.  They are small with direct interaction.  They are loyal and emotionally  attached to the other members in the group.  These groups are crucial to  individuals because they provide members with a sense of belonging, identity  and purpose.   In contrast to secondary groups, secondary groups are much larger  and more impersonal.  They are formally organized, task oriented and non- permanent.  The members vary in beliefs, attitudes and values.  
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Secondary groups help form primary groups, because primary groups  emerge within secondary groups.   4. Contrast the meaning of status to that of role A status is the position we occupy in each organization we are a part  of.  It is a social identity.  A role is the behavior expected of us while we  occupy our status.  The norms of the social organization constrain the  incumbents in a status to behave in prescribed and therefore predictable  ways, regardless of their particular personalities.   5. Contrast the meaning of values with that of norms Through enduring social reactions, common expectations emerge  about how people should act.  These expectations are called morns. The 
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