Chapter 1 & 2 SQ+Notes

Chapter 1 & 2 SQ+Notes - Oceanography 251-501 Study...

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Oceanography 251-501 Study Questions Chapter 1 1. Why is accurate measurement of time at sea important to navigation? Who was John Harrison? John Harrison invented the successful marine chronometer (exceptionally precise timepiece), able to determine longitude at sea. 2. Who was James Cook? How was he able to navigate more successfully than the previous explorers? James Cook took 3 voyages between 1768 and 1780; did some scientific work, and had use of chronometer for navigation. He was able to navigate more successfully because of use of chronometer. 3. Who were Charles Darwin and Matthew Maury? Charles Darwin was naturalist on ‘The Beagle’. Darwin developed theory of evolution, and formation of coral reefs. Mathew Maury started naval depot of charts, assigned to hydrographic office 1842, collected wind, current data, and published charts. 4. What was the Challenger expedition? List its accomplishments. What was accomplished on the voyage of the Fram? British Royal Society 1872-1876, British Admiralty provided naval ship, Challenger, had labs, winches, Wyville Thompson was the leader, Assistant John Murray, reported Marianas Trench, large # of species, manganese nodules. Voyage of the Fram, Fridtjof Nansen, Polar oceanography, 1893-1898, ship drifted across Arctic Ocean. Thus, proving there is no land mass in the Arctic Ocean. 5. List features of the ocean that might be studied by means of satellite borne sensors. - Sea floor bathymetry, water temperatures… 6. What is the Ocean Drilling Program? To conduct basic research into the history of the ocean basins and the overall nature of the crust beneath the ocean floor using the scientific drill ship JOIDES Resolution. International partnership of scientists and research institutions organized to explore the evolution and structure of Earth.
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7. Describe the overall structure of the earth (crust mantle core: thicknesses, properties) Inner Core – rigid, iron with nickel and sulfur, radius – 1216 km Outer Core – Liquid, iron with nickel and sulfur, radius – 2270 km Mantle (silicates materials) composed of mesosphere, asthenosphere, and lithosphere. Mesosphere – rigid, radius - 2185 km Asthenosphere – Plastic, radius – 600 km Lithosphere – Rigid, radius – 65 km Crust – Oceanic crust (basalt, high density and thin 8 km) Continental crust (granite, low density and thick, 35 km 8. What is the most probable source of the water in the ocean? The mantle 9. Describe the change over time in the oxygen content of the atmosphere, and the reason for the change. Photosynthetic organisms took about 1.2 billion years to develop and begin producing abundant free oxygen in the atmosphere. 10. The age of the earth is 4.5 billion years old; what is the oldest age of signs of life on earth? 1 billion years ago 11. What do we know, scientifically, about where and how life began?
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