Chapter 2 The Civilizations of the Ancient Near East 5000-1200

Chapter 2 The Civilizations of the Ancient Near East 5000-1200

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Chapter 2 Civilizations of the Near East 5000-1200 BC I. Mesopotamia and the First Cities a. Sumer i. Akkadian- Semitic language used in the area from about 2600 Bc ii. Part of Mesopotamia, name Sumerian adopted over the years iii. Based on group of cities that emerged around 3000 BC iv. Most disting feature language- Sumerian 1. difficult to place 2. unrelated to any to any other of the region 3. how originated mystery v. impossible to find material base for Sumerians vi. word used for general culture of the region from 3000-2300 BC vii. plain not appear likely place for civilization 1. few natural resources 2. rainfall limited b. Eridu i. First emergence of urban settlements ii. 5 th mill BC iii. centered on impressive temple complex built of mudbrick iv. close to Euphrates v. small ‘chapel’ (4900 BC) 1. later temples found as well 2. Babylonian texts refer to Eridu as the first city ‘the holy city’ vi. Graves reserved in 3800 BC suggest elite vii. Center for pilgrimage? viii. Hardly city c. Uruk i. 3800-3200 BC ii. mass of evidence of monumental building in stone iii. hard to distinguish because some demolished and rebuilt iv. public ceremonial areas v. primitive form of writing found here vi. covered half size of Rome at its height vii. suggested imperialist society- artifacts from other cultures viii. egalitarian society- sustaining economy based on exchange ix. greatest achievement- found way sustaining economic vigor over centuries 1. 3100 BC trading connections disappear 2. water supplies around Uruk began to dry up land d. logograms i. use of writing feature in early Mesopotamian states 1
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ii. symbol used to express word iii. 3000 BC- wriint gfound expressed in Sumerian iv. adoption of Sumerian, impt develop, use of Sumerian words of one syllable e. conservative society i. son not to drink or talk to prostitutes or talk to woman not married to ii. respect high social status iii. prtect family iv. work land carefully f. l. 4 th millennium- development of the whell i. more efficient way of making pottery ii.
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