Second set of notes - HNF150 P Thurston Fall 2007 Lecture...

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HNF150      Fall 2007 P Thurston Lecture Notes How do we know what we know? How do we know what we know? Many ways: 1. Born with knowledge 2. Children regulate their intake (adults don’t) 3. Personal testimony (neighbors/friends) 4. It is ancient wisdom passed through generations 5. Because someone famous told us/ we read it in a newspaper Problems: People are getting paid to say certain things and sometimes there’s no scientific  evidence  Scientific Method = Process by which scientists, collectively over time, endeavor to  construct an accurate representation of the world Steps: 1. Observation 2. Formulate hypothesis 3. Test hypothesis 4. Replicate 1
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HNF150      Fall 2007 P Thurston Lecture Notes 5. Peer review  Hypothesis = “p” value = Types of Scientific Studies: Case Studies: studies of individuals 1.  Epidemiological Studies: Study of whole populations Cross Sectional(garlic eaters vs non-garlic) 1. Methods: 2. Problems: Association (correlation) not causation “Confounding” 2
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