Running head: CERVICAL CANCER 1Cervical CancerStudents’ Name Institutional Affiliation
CERVICAL CANCER2Cervical CancerIntroduction Cervical cancer has received increased attention as one of the deadly diseases in the recent years. It is a chronic type of cancer that occurs in the cervix cells in the lower uterus part which links the vagina. It occurs when cervix cells grow in an abnormal way and try to invade other organs and tissues of the body. When it is disturbing, cancer affects the tissues of the cervixdeeply and consequently spreading to other parts of the body e.g. rectum, liver, vagina and lungs.Nevertheless, cervical cancer is noted to be growing slowly and therefore, its progression is via precancerous changes which give one a chance to prevent, detect and treat the disease at an early stage. Early detection of cervical cancer has led to the decline of its spread. A good number of women who have been detected with precancerous changes in their cervixes are mostly in their 20s and 30s; however, the average age of a female diagnosed with the disease is in 50s. The age between the precancerous changes and the age at which one is diagnosed with cancer shows the slow progression of the disease and gives room for intervention to prevent or treat. There are numerous causes of cervical cancer but the major ones are; Smoking, Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, taking control birth pills, having numerous sexual partners and engaging in sex at an early age. Human papillomavirus causes cervical dysplasia (abnormal growth of cells in the cervix). However, the most common signs and symptoms of the disease include; increased virginal discharge, pain during sex, pain in the pelvis, abnormal bleeding in the virginal and bleeding after menopause among others. Cervical cancer as a health topic is important in various ways; it helps people to be aware of the disease hence, helping them to detect it early and consequently prevent or treat it at early stages. Additionally, the awareness of the disease reduces the stigma which the patients go through by intensifying their limitations andtheir strengths.
CERVICAL CANCER3Background of cervical cancer Human papillomavirus is the most common and important aetiological agent for the growth of cervical cancer. Human papillomavirus is also implicated in other types of cancers e.g.anal cancer, head cancer, vulval, penile and neck cancers. There are certain HPV sub-types that are associated with cervical cancer. Specifically, HPV 16 and HPV 18 are noted to a case about 70% of all the cervical cancers as well as cancers of the throat, vagina and anus. There are some vaccines that can be used to help prevent the infection and they include; Gardasil, Gardasil 9 and Cervarix. HPV testing now plays a critical role in the prevention of cervical cancer to both non-vaccinated and vaccinated women. In the recent years, CERVIVA has been researching on effortsthat help in addressing the major national health services and challenges in population health related to cervical cancer.