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Week One - Week One(Jan 15 17 Earth is 70 water Less than 5...

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Week One (Jan 15 & 17) 15/01/2008 13:06:00 January 15, 2008 Earth is 70% water Less than 5% of seafloor is mapped out in detail Less than 1% of the ocean is explored Marine Geology Ocean Crust Plate Tectonics Sediment Marine Chemistry Water properties Composition Biochemistry Physical Oceanography Currents Waves Tides Marine Biology Life in the Sea Photosynthesis Heterotrophs
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Hydrothermal Vents Geology Chemistry Physics Biology Scale of the Oceans 97.2% in oceans .63% ground water 2.5% Glaciers    Ocean Dimensions Cover 71% of surface Average Depth 3.8 km Average temperature 3.9degreesC Average salinity: 34.5 g/kg World Ocean: Single continuous body of saline water Pacific ocean is the largest (can fit all others inside of it) Atlantic Indian Southern Arctic Origin of ocean
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Earth is 4,600,000,000 yo Hydrogen, oxygen --- out gassing to the surface which forms an atmosphere Some water from comets Ocean accumulated as earth cooled (3.8bya) Origin of life Ocean most hospitable environment on early earth o Protection of radiation o Not a lot of temperature variation o Skeletal structure not needed o Dissolves many chemicals --- way to obtain nutrients o Old idea: Tidal pools (photosynthesis) o Current hypothesis: hydrothermal vents (chemosynthesis) o Oldest fossils: 3.5 byr bacteria o Oldest chemical evidence ~3.8 byr carbon isotopes  Extraterrestrial Oceans Venus o Water vapor Earth o Liquid water Mars o Ice
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History of Oceanography Relatively young science James Cook o Fist expeditions with scientific goals o 3 voyages 1768-1780
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