Nov 13 lecture sec 2 - By 1952 it was widely recognized...

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Unformatted text preview: By 1952 it was widely recognized That There were No hominin species represented by The South African fossils Ausrm/apirhecus africanu: Pamn fhmpus mbwfus Known from a large sample of fossils dating from 2.4 to 3.4 my Know from a large sample of fossils daring from 1.4 to 2.0 my 'gracile“ vs. Walrus?" australopi‘thecines Ausrmlopirhecm Pamn rhropus Face affached lower braincase Face aflached higher on braim:ase\A steeper forehead ‘Fla1"rer'I forehead 'gmcile“ vs. “robus’r‘ ausfralopi-rhecines Sagi‘r’ral cresi' often presen'r ./ Na sagifl'al crest )3 L00} ‘grociie' vs. 'robusf' aus’rralopifl-Iecines Ausfmlapifhecus Paran'rhmpus Less robusf jaw very robus? jaw Prognarhic face Less prognarhic face Smaller incisors and canines, larger premolars and molars Larger incisors and canines, smaller premolars and molars "gracile' vs. ‘robust' ausfralopithecines Average cranial capacity = 450ml Aver. Cr. Capacity = 515ml Approximately same body size and both show more sexual dimorphism than modern folks By 1960 The focus on search for early hominins was shifting from Sou-it to Easf Africa. Olduvai Gorge Tanzania was the inifial East Africa sire fo yield hominin fossils. .- Louis and Mary Leakey worked here for many ll Mary and Louis Leakey had collected stone tools from the bottom to the top of the gorge- Before 1959, the had collected many fossils also, In 1959 Mary Leakey collected a nearly complete skull of Pamanpis baisei Similar to P. mbusfus but even more robust. In 1963. the Leakeys' collected the first specimens of Homo habilis. By the end of the 1980's they had collected 60 specimens of hominins dating from 1.2 to 1.8 my. Dating. tools. hominins, and sediments Oma Valley, Ethiopia, 259 specimens - primarily isolated teeth. Aumlopifiiecus afmis, Paranthmpu: aerhiopicus. Pa'anfhmpus baisei, and Ham habiftis (1.4 to 3.1my) F. Clark Howell mu- East and W251- Lake Turknna, Kenya More Than 300 specimens. Ausrmlopirhecus ammis, Amlapr'fhecus afarensis, Pamnrhrapus aeflubpim, Pamnrhmpus baisei, Home habilis', and Home eryasfen 1.2 to 4.2m): Richard Leakey, Mauve Leakey, thnn Isaac. and Alan Walker- Wes? Lake Turkana — Paranrhmpus aefhiopicm million years Infemfing 'i'nissing link“ IIL‘l '.l.'l ll'l Ausfral anamnsis- op: like face, Numerous archaeological sites in the Turkana region. 1.5 to 2.2 million years ago Oldowan Tool industry. Hadar, Ethiopia — approximafaly 350 specimens. Ambpirhew: afmis — lacy, “Firs-r family" 2.8 to 3.4 my Don Johonson, Tim While, Yves Coppers Hadar, Ethiopia ‘ . ' f 25 I‘ ~ _ It Large sample of spwmens - . .. ‘ a represents a species me? is . 1'- ' more primitive Than A. ‘ , africanus -«r .- Lae‘roii, Tanzania - 30 specimens of A. afarensis Aramis, thiopia - approximately 30 specimens -Ardl;airhecus mmidus 4.4 to 5.2 million years Gen Suwa and Tim Whife ‘1 : l i 1? § Ham Member of The Middle Awash, Ethiopia - 10 specimens of Austmlopifhecusgarhi 2.5 my. First maker of stone Tools? Y. Hails-Selassie, "Fun Main; Adap rive Inflation! Cen‘rral Chad In 2002 M. Brunef and colleagues described Saba/anthrapus rchadensis- 6 to 7my Near- fire common ancesrar of chimps and humans? ...
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