Chapter 6: The Constitution and the New Republic(1781-1800) - Chapter 6 The Constitution and the New Republic(1781-1800 I The United States Under the

Chapter 6: The Constitution and the New Republic(1781-1800)...

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Chapter 6: The Constitution and the New Republic(1781-1800)I.The United States Under the Articles (1781-1787)Constitutional convention 4 years after Treaty of ParisArticles have unicameral, no executive/president, and no judiciary (many problems)1.Foreign Problemsa.Relations with European nations bad…b.States don't listen to treaty (give back land to loyalists)c.U.S. too weak to make Britain abandon its outposts(makes U.S. look bad)2.Economic Weakness and Interstate Quarrelsa.Less foreign trade and limited credit because war debt leads to economic depressionb.No national taxes and inflation makes it worsec.States suspicious of one another…. Compete for economic advantage by placing tariffs/restrictions on interstate traded.A lot of boundary disputes3.The Annapolis Conventiona.To review solution GW hosts meeting at Mt.Vernon (1785)b.Reps from Virginia, Maryland, Delaware, and PA agree problems serious and for new meeting in Annapolis, Maryland where all representedc.Only 5 show up in 1786d.James Madison and Alexander Hamilton convince others that another meeting should be held in PA to revise the articlesII.Drafting the Constitution at PhiladelphiaCongress approves meeting for the sole purpose of revising the articlesRI refused to send delegates1.The Delegatesa.55 delegates (white, male, college educated, relatively young(40s) and wealthier than average American)b.Though young very politically active and many drafted their state constitutions (many lawyers)c.Conducted the meeting in secret until discussion/ work was completedd.GW unanimously elected chairpersone.Ben Franklin (81) proved calm influence, James Madison fashioned specific articles of the Constitution(father of the constitution), Alexander Hamilton/governor Morris/ John Dickinson wanted to strengthen the nationf.(1)John Jay, John Adams, and Thomas Paine on business abroad (2) Sam Adams and John Hancock not chosen as delegates (3) Patrick Henry opposed growth of federal power2.Key Issuesa.Disagreement on what to do revise vs. new documentb.Nationalists take control (Madison & Hamilton)c.Americans distrusted government thought officials would abuse powerd.Delegates wanted to create system of checks and balances so that power of each branch was controlled by the others… Representation
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a.Virginia plan- favored large states, proportional votes to population (Madison proposal)b.New Jersey Plan- favor small states, everyone has equal votesc.Issue resolved by Roger Sherman of ConnecticutConnecticut plan/ Great Compromise- bicameral- senate have equal reps & HOR have reps by population… Slaverya.compromise- each slave is worth of a person in determining taxation and number ofrepsb.Slaves imported for at least 20 more years until 1808 then congress can vote to abolish it… Tradea.Northern states want central government to regulate trade/ Southern are afraid export taxes will be placed on agricultureb.Commercial compromise- allow Congress to regulate interstate and foreign commerce
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