Dec 11, 13 - More Than 50 of The fossil record bearing on...

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Unformatted text preview: More Than 50% of The fossil record bearing on Human Evolufion has been coilec‘ted since 1.972. More fhan 95% of the genefic evidence That bears on Human Evolufion has been collected since 1980. ._ ‘ r? n “3!... _. r :“— 7 \ E . From 0mm 1:: Prutrm' What's The deal wifh 'rhe: hobbifs? The LBl cranium and mandibie in lateral and fhree-quar'fer' views, and cranium in fron‘ral, posferior, :superior and inferior views. from the Lone Flores Inmsz P. Brown, T. Surkna, M. J. Mahmoud. R. P Eoejono, Jutmikn, E. W-uyhu Supreme and Rolous Awe Due Nam 43!, 1055u1061(23 October 2004) be no? copy - directly from handoufi early Archaic Homo sapfens (includirg Home he'r'defbargtnsisj 175‘000 - 400,000bp. Africa. Europe‘ Asia, Javav Slightly smaller cheek Teeth and slighfly larger anTeria- tee‘l‘h than H. 0mm. Brain is also slightly larger flwn its Pncursor. Sometimes referred to as Transitional H. squib-n: because if is infemediafe in form between H. mchrsand Infer occurring H. sapiens (according to some resumhers). The variafion among specimens at single sites is great and suggesl's "101‘ these people were inure dimorphic than modern folks. The remains of These people are found associafed with Tools of lhe Acheulean industry and tools made by the Levallois technique. Early Archaic Ham sapiens: Geographically w-ialaspread. Known from Saufhern Africa, Europe, China, and Indonesia. Besf samples are from Araga, France and Atapuer-ca, Spain ' ‘ i”; Adul‘l’ '-. _ speciInens have brains Iwifhin lhe size range of modern humans. Levallois fechnique for making fools Yields mre cuffng edge per unit of sfone Do No? Copy Hana sapiens manderfhalensrk (Homo wander-Malawi}? 40,000 - 171000139 [maybe back to 300,000). Europe, West Asia, and North Africa. Similar to early archaic Home uproar, differing in having larger brains, slightly smaller cheek teeth, slightly larger anterior teeth. and a skull The? is widen a1 a higher palm on the pariefal bone Brains average wound 1,485ml --- larger whan the modern human average. Large browridges, large occipital bun, and a somewhai projefllng face characterize most skulls. There is growing evidence Thar some camemporary populations in Asia and especially Africa were more modern lacking fhan flwse living in Europe and fhe Middle Ens? during This Nine. 111a European and Middle Eastern people were extremely robust and strong. Fim clear evidence of complex spiritual belief eyflems am 1'0 fhis Time period. Stone hols vary a greaf deal m This time. Tool industries include highly specialized flake tools. The European and Middle Ensfern tools are referred to as five Mousterian industry. Bru'l'ish near human “Primifive” human— lilce creafure Or nearly modern human? Do Not Copy Home sapl'ens sapiens last 160,000 years or so. Characterized by gracile skeleton: short, high, and domed skull: reduced browridges: reduoed maxilla, mandible, and dentitions: flat face that is tucked under skull; and a well—developed chin at a young age. These people lived throughout the Old World -- including Australia and they have inhabited the New World for the last 24,CDO years or so. Initially associated with the same store industries associated with neandertals. Some evidence of more advanced technologies including bone and wood tools in Africa before 60,000 years. Neondertals: overstudied, under appreciated? Close relatives and ongoing debate if they are cousins or ancestors Historical context of debate: in 1856 most western natural scientists had embraCed some sort of evolutionary theory for explaining natural diversity - at the same time. humans were often placed above nature in discussions of evolution. 1856 - original specimen -- Fuhlrott, Schoaffhausen, Virchow Huxley, Lyell, and King 1335 — Spy, Belgium 2 skeletons (shuffling gui‘r) Marcellin Boule La Chopelle shuffling, primitive brute that represents a recenfiy exfinct cousin By the 1960': many saw the Neandertnls To be qui'l'e modern. In part to a vastly imprwed fossil record. Archaeology - burials, ' grave goods __ complex ,u. Munster-inn fool indusfry includes a range of specialized fools. Ritual burials, symbolism, and compassion The Firs? Flower Children Here is my favorife drawing of Neanderfals v— capital-es both Their- disl'incfive anatomy and their cognifive complexity. But how are they relal'ed to us? . _ ‘ 9' .- ' .. a ,. Multiregional Continuity Model A. Thorne and M. Wolpoff 94m. The Multiregional Continuity Model of human evolution contends that after Homo emfus left Africa and dispersed into other portions of the Old World, regional populations (including Neandertals) slowly evolved into modern humans. Neandertals are in the ancestry of modern humans as are the other archaic peoples of the late Pleistocene The Replacement Model C.B. Stringer (skeletal biologist) A. Wilson and R. Conn (genetists) This model asserts that modern humans evolved relatively recently in Africa, migrated into Eurasia and replaced all populations which had descended from Homo erecfus. Initially based on skeletal biology, more recently genetic data (often mitochondrial DNA) has been used to support this model. Neandertals are extinct cousins of modern humankind as are the other non-African archaics Genetic information does not group Neandertals within modern humans. 2,; m m not. w, n it, I But the only early modern human skeleton that has been evaluated yields similar results. 0.18 my Vertical forehead with weak hmwridge (Homo sapiens) blade technologies occur in Africa earlier than elsewhere Earliest evidence of modern people Herlo, Ethio u ia Modern humans migrafe our of Africa in a series of waves during pas? 100,000 years replacing and/or assimilating more archaic peoples Replacemenf \/ P. aeflu'apl A. afi'icam ? A, garb: mmnfili'jms Norm.r encrus- Hamo Muff: Chimps / A. mammals A. ' A plausible S. frindensi: phyloggny for a mmm’ Pliocene and fi Pleisfocene hominins ...
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