Review for second exam - Geological time scale for primate...

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Unformatted text preview: Geological time scale for primate history Cenozoic Era: 0 to 65 million years (my) Paleocene: 56 to 65 my Radiation of archaic mammals. Eocene: 35 to 56 my First adaptive radiations of primates. Oligocene: 23 to 38 my Adaptive radiations of anthropoid primates. Miocene: 5 to 23 my Adaptive radiation of hominoicl primates. Pliocene: 2 to 5 my Pleistocene: 0.01 to 20 my Earliest Well Known Primates WHAT and WHO'- Ornamyidae and Adapidoe ADAPTATIONS: extensive mdiation of arboreal creatures [we will elaborate on this] PHYLOGENY'. Omomyidae give rise to Haplor‘rhini and Adapidae give rise to Strepsirrhini Lemur-s and lorises Tarsiers NWM OWM Pen-la Apes Adaptive diversity among omomyid primates Taxonomic diversity: 39 genera. 91 species My size: 459 to 1.7009 most are less than 4009 Activity art—em: mostly noctu-nal, at least one genus was diurnal Riel: primarily frugivorous, a number of insectivores, and a possibly a folivore or two- Lie—comm: active arboreol quadrupeds (runners and leapers) and some more specialized leopers. Give rise to more recent and extant haplorrhines Adaptive diversify among adapid primates Taxonomic diversifl: 37 genera. 89 species mg size: 1009 to 6.9009 m? larger Than 1.0009 Acfivig Efrem: mosfly diurnal, a1- leas‘r one genus was nocturnal M: primarily frugivorous. a number of folivores, and a handful of insecfivores. Locomfion: active arboreal wadrupeds (runners and leapers). some more specialized leapers, and deliberafe arboreal quadrupeds Give rise to more recent and exfan? sirepsirrhines When: late Eocene and early Oligocene (31 To 37 mya) What: Earliest well documented. an'rhropoid radiation. Adaptive profiles for- two early Oligocene An'rhropoids Aegypfopifhecus zeuxi's 6,7009 1,6009 Apidmm phr'wnense diurnal diurnal fruit wifh some leaves hard fruits delibera‘l’e arboreal quadruped acfive orborea! runner and leaper These Two species appear to have been characterized by a substantial mun? of sound dimorphism. Hypothesis testing Hypothesis: an educated statement - in natural sciences such a statement is based on observations and must have test implications. EXAMPLE: Aegypropirhecusis more closely related to extant catarrhines than to extant New World monkeys. COVERING LAW: Evolution occurs such that species have specific phylogenetic relationships with one another. ANCILLARV PRINCIPLE: Phylogenetic relationships may be reconstructed using characteristics of organisms. TESTING: A) Reanalysis of ‘old" data - “redoing an experiment" B) New discoveries - serve to support or weaken hypothesis Preliminary hypothesis on the relationships among Miocene and more recent hominoids (Simons and Pilbeam, 1965) Gibbon Orangutan Gorilla Chimp Humankind Simpr‘rhews Simpirhecusand Protons'uf are valid genera Energized and focused research on ape and human origins. Strepsirrhinitarsiers NWM OWM gibbons orangs A.Apes Humans / A. africon Simpirhecus \ Proconsu! Aemp fopf fhecus Apidfum / Easfn-Has Adapidae Omomyidae ...
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