LactationLactation is unique to mammals. The purposes of lactation are to provide nourishment, to provide immunity, and provide readily available energy.Location varies by species. Lactaction occurs in the pectoral region of humans and elephants, the inguinal region (between the hind legs) in some animals (e.g. horses), and the abdominal region (along the whole length of the abdomen) in others (e.g. dogs). The general anatomy of the mammary gland is fairly uniform. The mammary gland is a skin gland outside the body, it is most complex in cattle, and is also an endocrine gland.Arrangements, or groupings, of the mammary glands follows:In bovine, the udder is divided into four separate quarters, each independent in its milk producing function.In sheep, the structure is similar to that of cows but there are only two glands.Caprine (goats) are similar to the ovine structure except that the udder and teats are funnel shaped.
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