APUSH Chapter 14 - Chapter 14 The Secession Crisis The...

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Chapter 14 The Secession Crisis The Withdrawal of the South 1. The Confederate States :SC, MS, FL, Alabama, Louisiana and TX. 2. Fort Sumter was garrisoned by a small force under Major Robert Anderson. 3. SC sent commissioner to Washington to ask for the surrender of Sumter, but Buchanan refused to yield. The Failure of Compromise 1. Senator John J. Crittenden of Kentucky submitted a Compromise. 2. Crittenden Compromise:guaranteed the permanent existence of slavery in slave states and reestablish the Missouri Compromise. 3. Republicans rejected bc it = expansion of slavery. Fort Sumter 1. The Confederate leaders ordered General P.G.T Beauregard to take Sumter 2. Anderson refused to surrender→ the Confederates bombarded it for two days→ 3. 4 new states seceded from the Union: Virginia, Arkansas, Tennessee and North Carolina 4. Maryland, Delaware,Kentucky, and Missouri remained. The Opposing Sides 1. The North had more material, population and much greater manpower for its armies and its work force + better transportation. 2. South had the advantage of local support and familiarity with the territory and dependence of the English and the French textile industry on American cotton = require them to intervene on the side of the Confederacy. The Mobilization of the North Economic Measures 1. The Homestead Act of 1862 permitted citizens to claim 160 acres of public land & to purchase it for a small fee living on it for 5 yrs. 2. The Morrill Land Act- transferred sub public acreage to the state govt. 3. Congress completed the transcontinental railroad. 4. Created the Union Pacific Railroad Company which was to build westward from Omaha and the Central Pacific which was to build eastward from California. 5. The National Bank Acts of 1863-18634 other banks could join 6. Enough capital and inv ⅓ of it in govt securities → could issue U.S Treasury notes as $ 7. The govt tried to finance the war itself by levying taxes, issuing paper $, and borrowing. Raising the Union Armies 1. By March 1863, Congress was forced to pass a national draft law. 2. A man could escape service by hiring someone to go in his place/ paying the govt a fee of $300. Wartime Politics 1. Lincoln ignored inconvenient parts of the Constitution. 2. Sent troops w/o asking Congress for a dec of war. 3. Increased reg army w/o receiving legislative authority. 4. Unilaterally proclaimed a naval blockade of the South. 5. Ordered military arrests of civilian disentería and suspended the right of habeas corpus.
6. In 1862, he proclaimed that all persons who discouraged enlistment or engaged in disloyal practices were subject to martial law. The Politics of Emancipation 1. Confiscation Act (1861)- Dec that all slaves used for “insurrectionary” purposes would be considered freed. 2. 2nd one Dec that free the slaves of persons aiding and supporting the insurrection and authorized the president to employ A.A.

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