APUSH Chapter 13 - Chapter 13 Looking Westward Manifest...

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Chapter 13 Looking Westward Manifest Destiny 1. Manifest Destiny=America was destined by God and by history to expand its boundaries over a vast area aka the continent of North America. 2. The Indians, the Mexicans, and others in the western regions = racially unfit to be part of an “American” community. 3. Henry Clay and other prominent politicians feared that Territorial expansion would reopen the painful controversy over slavery and threaten the stability of the Union. Americans in Texas 1. In the early 1820s, the Mexican govt encouraged American immigration into Texas. Believed that it would serve as an effective buffer 2. An 1824 colonization law designed to attract America settlers promised the newcomers cheap land and a 4yr emption from taxes. 3. Stephen F. Austin and other intermediaries were effective in recruiting American immigration to Texas, but also created centers of power in the region 4. Led a revolt to establish Texas as an independent nation but was later crushed down. Tensions between in U.S and Mexico 1. Slavery=illegal in Texas 2. General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna seized power as the dictator. 3. Mexican imprisoned Stephen Austin bc they claimed that he was encouraging revolts. 4. In 1836, the American settlers defiantly proclaimed their inde from Mexico. 5. In 1836 general Sam Houston defeated Mexican army and took Santa Anna prisoner. 6. Santa Anna under pressured signed a treaty giving Texas inde. 7. Texas hoped for annexation from the U.S 8. Jackson feared annexation → a dangerous sectional controversy & a war w/ Mexico. 9. Growing power of America→ England and France concluded trade treaties w/ Texas. Oregon 1. The U.S and the British both claimed sovereignty. 2. The British on the basis of exploration in the 1790s by George Vancouver,a naval officer 3. The Americans on the basis of simultaneous claims by Robert GRay, a fur trader 4. The treaty of 1818( “joint occupation” ) → citizens of each country to = access to it. 5. There was an increased in evangelical efforts 6. Motivated by the desire to counter Catholic missionaries from Canada. 7. The Indians blamed Marcus Whitman mission for the plague→ the death of 13 whites. The Westward Migration 1. Early 1850s, the great gold rush attracted many single men. 2. All immigrants were in search of new life but all came for different purposes. Quick riches Acquire prop for farming speculation Establish as merchants and serve the new white communities Religious missions Attempting to escape epidemics that were plaguing cities in the East.
Economic opportunities. Life on the Trail 1. Oregon Trail-2000 miles from the Inde → Great Plains → South Pass of The Rocky Mt. 2. Santa Fe, southwest Independence into New Mexico. 3. Indians were usually more helpful than dangerous to the white immigrants.

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