agriculture.pdf - HLPE REPORT 10 Sustainable agricultural development for food security and nutrition what roles for livestock A report by The High

agriculture.pdf - HLPE REPORT 10 Sustainable agricultural...

This preview shows page 1 out of 140 pages.

Unformatted text preview: HLPE REPORT 10 Sustainable agricultural development for food security and nutrition: what roles for livestock? A report by The High Level Panel of Experts on Food Security and Nutrition July 2016 HLPE High Level Panel of Experts HLPE Reports series #1 Price volatility and food security (2011) #2 Land tenure and international investments in agriculture (2011) #3 Food security and climate change (2012) #4 Social protection for food security (2012) #5 Biofuels and food security (2013) #6 Investing in smallholder agriculture for food security (2013) #7 Sustainable fisheries and aquaculture for food security and nutrition (2014) #8 Food losses and waste in the context of sustainable food systems (2014) #9 Water for food security and nutrition (2015) #10 Sustainable agricultural development for food security and nutrition: what roles for livestock? (2016) All HLPE reports are available at 2 HLPE Steering Committee members (July 2016) Patrick Caron (Chair) Carol Kalafatic (Vice-Chair) Amadou Allahoury Louise Fresco Eileen Kennedy Muhammad Azeem Khan Bernardo Kliksberg Fangquan Mei Sophia Murphy Mohammad Saeid Noori Naeini Michel Pimbert Juan Ángel Rivera Dommarco Magdalena Sepúlveda Martin Yemefack Rami Zurayk HLPE Project Team members Wilfrid Legg (Team Leader) Khaled Abbas Daniela Alfaro Botir Dosov Neil Fraser Delia Grace Robert Habib Claudia Job Schmitt Langelihle Simela Funing Zhong Coordinator of the HLPE Nathanaël Pingault This report by the High Level Panel of Experts on Food Security and Nutrition (HLPE) has been approved by the HLPE Steering Committee. The views expressed do not necessarily reflect the official views of the Committee on World Food Security, of its members, participants, or of the Secretariat. This report is made publicly available and its reproduction and dissemination is encouraged. Non-commercial uses will be authorized free of charge, upon request. Reproduction for resale or other commercial purposes, including educational purposes, may incur fees. Applications for permission to reproduce or disseminate this report should be addressed by e-mail to [email protected] with copy to [email protected] Referencing this report: HLPE. 2016. Sustainable agricultural development for food security and nutrition: what roles for livestock? A report by the High Level Panel of Experts on Food Security and Nutrition of the Committee on World Food Security, Rome. 3 Contents FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................................... 9 SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS ............................................................................................ 13 Summary .......................................................................................................................................... 13 Recommendations .......................................................................................................................... 19 INTRODUCTION................................................................................................................................... 25 1 2 SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT FOR FOOD SECURITY AND NUTRITION: APPROACH AND CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK ....................................... 29 1.1 What is “sustainable agricultural development for food security and nutrition”? ......... 29 1.1.1 Agricultural development in relation to food security and nutrition .............................. 29 1.1.2 “Sustainable” agricultural development for FSN ......................................................... 31 1.1.3 Conceptual framework ................................................................................................ 33 1.2 The key role of the livestock sector ..................................................................................... 34 1.3 Typology of farming systems ............................................................................................... 36 1.3.1 Smallholder mixed farming systems............................................................................ 38 1.3.2 Pastoral systems ......................................................................................................... 39 1.3.3 Commercial grazing systems ...................................................................................... 39 1.3.4 Intensive livestock systems ......................................................................................... 40 1.3.5 Links with plant-based systems................................................................................... 40 1.4 Concluding comments ........................................................................................................... 41 TRENDS AND DRIVERS OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT ............................................. 43 2.1 External trends affecting agricultural development ........................................................... 43 2.1.1 Demographic changes, economic growth and their impacts on FSN ......................... 43 2.1.2 Changing diets: evolution of ASF consumption .......................................................... 45 2.2 Evolution of agricultural markets ......................................................................................... 47 2.2.1 Real prices follow the long-term declining trend ......................................................... 47 2.2.2 Price volatility............................................................................................................... 48 2.2.3 Trade, SAD and FSN................................................................................................... 49 2.3 Radical transformation of farming and food systems ........................................................ 50 2.3.1 Structural transformation in agriculture and the livestock revolution ........................... 50 2.3.2 Intensification and specialization of farming systems ................................................. 51 2.3.3 Evolution of crop–livestock linkages............................................................................ 52 2.3.4 Complexification and growing concentration in food systems .................................... 55 2.4 Projections and scenarios for agricultural development, focusing on livestock supply and demand ........................................................................................................ 57 2.4.1 FAO projections ........................................................................................................... 57 2.4.2 Other projections and scenarios .................................................................................. 58 2.5 3 Concluding comments ........................................................................................................... 59 SUSTAINABILITY CHALLENGES FOR LIVESTOCK IN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT . 61 3.1 Cross-cutting global challenges ........................................................................................... 61 3.1.1 Environmental challenges ........................................................................................... 61 3.1.2 Economic challenges .................................................................................................. 65 3.1.3 Social challenges......................................................................................................... 66 3.1.4 Health challenges ........................................................................................................ 69 3.1.5 Animal welfare ............................................................................................................. 71 5 4 3.2 Key challenges in smallholder mixed-farming systems .................................................... 72 3.2.1 Limited access to resources, market and services ..................................................... 72 3.2.2 Low resource efficiency and resilience ....................................................................... 72 3.3 Key challenges in pastoral systems .................................................................................... 73 3.3.1 Conflicts for land and water ......................................................................................... 73 3.3.2 Economic and policy-related discrimination ................................................................ 74 3.3.3 Social and gender inequity .......................................................................................... 74 3.3.4 Human and animal health challenges ......................................................................... 75 3.4 Key challenges in commercial grazing systems ................................................................ 76 3.5 Key challenges in intensive livestock systems .................................................................. 77 3.5.1 Environmental challenges resulting from intensification ............................................. 77 3.5.2 Health impacts of intensive systems ........................................................................... 78 3.5.3 Social challenges in intensive systems ....................................................................... 78 3.5.4 Economic challenges in intensive systems ................................................................. 79 3.6 Concluding comments ........................................................................................................... 80 PATHWAYS TOWARDS SAD FOCUSING ON LIVESTOCK ..................................................... 83 4.1 Common approach to elaborate pathways.......................................................................... 83 4.2 Operational principles for solutions towards SAD ............................................................. 85 4.2.1 Improve resource efficiency ........................................................................................ 85 4.2.2 Strengthen resilience ................................................................................................... 90 4.2.3 Secure social equity/responsibility .............................................................................. 92 4.2.4 Controversies around solutions ................................................................................... 95 4.3 Enabling SAD solutions and responses .............................................................................. 96 4.3.1 Investing in agriculture as an overall economic priority............................................... 96 4.3.2 Role and limits of markets ........................................................................................... 97 4.3.3 Diversification and integration ..................................................................................... 99 4.3.4 Gender ....................................................................................................................... 102 4.3.5 Institutions and governance ...................................................................................... 103 4.4 Pathways in specific farming systems .............................................................................. 106 4.4.1 Smallholder mixed farming systems.......................................................................... 106 4.4.2 Pastoral systems ....................................................................................................... 109 4.4.3 Commercial grazing systems .................................................................................... 111 4.4.4 Intensive livestock systems ....................................................................................... 114 4.5 Concluding comments......................................................................................................... 117 CONCLUSION AND WAYS FORWARD ........................................................................................... 119 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS................................................................................................................... 121 REFERENCES .................................................................................................................................... 122 APPENDIX .......................................................................................................................................... 138 The HLPE project cycle ................................................................................................................. 138 6 List of Figures Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Conceptual framework: relationship between sustainable agricultural development and food security and nutrition ................................................................................................... 33 Share of rural households keeping livestock ...................................................................... 35 Relationship between per capita meat consumption and income in 2011 .......................... 46 Medium-term evolution of commodity prices in real terms ................................................. 47 Use of plant food calories – world (1961–2007) ................................................................. 53 Land-use and major flows of biomass and its derivatives in the global food and agriculture system (circa 2000) ........................................................................................... 55 Mortality rate of calves (%) .................................................................................................. 62 Pathways and responses for SAD towards FSN ................................................................ 84 HLPE project cycle ............................................................................................................ 139 List of Tables Table 1 Table 2 Share of livestock systems in animals population and in main livestock products ............. 37 Priority challenges to attain SAD for FSN in different livestock systems ............................ 81 List of Definitions Definition 1 Sustainable agricultural development ........................................................................... 29 List of Boxes Box 1 Box 2 Box 3 Box 4 Box 5 Box 6 Box 7 Box 8 Box 9 Box 10 Box 11 Box 12 Box 13 Box 14 Box 15 Box 16 Box 17 Box 18 Box 19 Box 20 Box 21 Box 22 Rural worlds – importance of agriculture in the economy ..................................................... 31 Economic growth, demographic change and adjustment in China’s agriculture sector ........ 45 Trade flows of livestock feeds in China ................................................................................. 54 Biofuels .................................................................................................................................. 58 Global climate change, food supply and livestock production systems: A bioeconomic analysis .................................................................................................................................. 64 Occupational health in the meat and poultry industry in the United States of America ........ 67 Impacts of Conflicts on Pastoralists ....................................................................................... 69 OIE principles for animal welfare ........................................................................................... 71 Indigenous peoples and livestock .......................................................................................... 75 The challenge of degradation, biodiversity loss and soil erosion on grassland systems in the Southern Cone of America .......................................................................................... 76 Integrated sustainable silvo-pastoral systems in Colombia ................................................... 86 Improved goat production in Kenya ....................................................................................... 87 Embracing sustainable intensification ................................................................................... 87 The contribution of insects ..................................................................................................... 89 The development of agro-ecology in selected countries ....................................................... 91 Working conditions in the meat processing industry ............................................................. 94 Animal welfare: contributing to resilience and resource efficiency ........................................ 94 The evolution of diets in the Mediterranean area during the last 50 years ......................... 101 The Global Agenda for Sustainable Livestock development ............................................... 105 Sustainable livestock – private sector initiatives ................................................................. 105 Smallholder pig production in Viet Nam .............................................................................. 106 Empowering rural women artisans through improved production, processing and export of wool and mohair in Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan ..................................................... 107 7 Box 23 Box 24 Box 25 Box 26 Box 27 8 Improving pastoral systems in the Sahel and the Sahara ................................................... 110 Sustainability in the New Zealand sheep meat sector ......................................................... 113 Livestock and deforestation: pathways for sustainable beef in the Brazilian Amazonia ..... 114 Changing structure of the pig sector in China ..................................................................... 115 Intensive livestock systems in Europe ................................................................................. 116 FOREWORD The High Level Panel of Experts for Food Security and Nutrition (HLPE) is the science-policy interface of the Committee on World Food Security (CFS), which is, at the global level, the foremost inclusive and evidence-based international and intergovernmental platform for food security and nutrition. HLPE reports serve as a common, comprehensive, evidence-based starting point for intergovernmental and international multistakeholder policy debates in CFS. The HLPE draws its studies based on existing research and knowledge. The HLPE thrives to clarify contradictory information and knowledge, elicit the backgrounds and rationales of controversies, and identify emerging issues. The HLPE organizes a scientific dialogue, built upon the diversity of disciplines, backgrounds, knowledge systems, diversity of its Steering Committee and Project Teams, and upon open electronic consultations. HLPE reports are widely used as reference documents within and beyond CFS and the UN system, by the scientific community as well as by political decision-makers and stakeholders, at international, regional and national levels. *** In October 2014, the Committee on World Food Security (CFS), requested the High Level Panel of Experts (HLPE) to prepare a report on sustainable agricultural development (SAD) for food security and nutrition (FSN), including the role of livestock. This topic is highly relevant to the 2030 Agenda agreed by the international community in 2015. The objective of Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 2 is specifically to “end hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition, and promote sustainable agriculture”. Yet all of the SDGs have strong implications for the achievement of SAD for FSN. In return, we should expect SAD to contribute to the fulfilment of all these goals. SAD is also relevant to the role of agriculture and agricultural development in the implementation of the 2014 Rome Declaration on Nutrition, and is central to the fulfilment of the UN commitment to the Right to Food. SAD has been touched on in other HLPE reports, either w...
View Full Document

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture