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Unformatted text preview: Home Jobs Coding Ground Current Affairs UPSC Notes Online Tutors Whiteboard Net Meeting Tutorix Search your favorite tutorials. tutorials HTML - Quick Guide Advertisements Previous Page Next Page HTML - Overview HTML stands for Hypertext Markup Language, and it is the most widely used language to write Web Pages. Hypertext refers to the way in which Web pages (HTML documents) are linked together. Thus, the link available on a webpage is called Hypertext. As its name suggests, HTML is a Markup Language which means you use HTML to simply "mark-up" a text document with tags that tell a Web browser how to structure it to display. Originally, HTML was developed with the intent of defining the structure of documents like headings, paragraphs, lists, and so forth to facilitate the sharing of scientific information between researchers. Now, HTML is being widely used to format web pages with the help of different tags available in HTML language. Basic HTML Document In its simplest form, following is an example of an HTML document − We use cookies to provide and improve our services. By using our site, you consent to our Cookies Policy. Accept Learn more Live Demo Home Jobs <!DOCTYPE html> Coding Ground Current Affairs UPSC Notes Online Tutors Whiteboard Net Meeting Tutorix <html> Search your favorite tutorials. tutorials <head> <title>This is document title</title> </head> <body> <h1>This is a heading</h1> <p>Document content goes here.....</p> </body> </html> This is a heading Document content goes here..... HTML Tags As told earlier, HTML is a markup language and makes use of various tags to format the content. These tags are enclosed within angle braces <Tag Name>. Except few tags, most of the tags have their corresponding closing tags. For example, <html> has its closing tag </html> and <body> tag has its closing tag </body> tag etc. Above example of HTML document uses the following tags − Sr.No 1 Tag & Description <!DOCTYPE...> This tag defines the document type and HTML version. 2 <html> This tag encloses the complete HTML document and mainly comprises of document header which is represented by <head>...</head> We use cookies to provide and improve our services. By using our site, you consent to our Cookies Policy. Accept Learn more and document body which is represented by <body>...</body> tags. 3 Home <head> Jobs Coding Ground Current Affairs UPSC Notes Online Tutors Whiteboard Net Meeting Tutorix This tag represents the document's header which can keep other HTML tags like <title>, <link> etc. Search your favorite tutorials. tutorials 4 <title> The <title> tag is used inside the <head> tag to mention the document title. 5 <body> This tag represents the document's body which keeps other HTML tags like <h1>, <div>, <p> etc. 6 <h1> This tag represents the heading. 7 <p> This tag represents a paragraph. To learn HTML, you will need to study various tags and understand how they behave, while formatting a textual document. Learning HTML is simple as users have to learn the usage of different tags in order to format the text or images to make a beautiful webpage. World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) recommends to use lowercase tags starting from HTML 4. HTML Document Structure A typical HTML document will have the following structure − <html> <head> Document header related tags </head> <body> Document body related tags </body> </html> We use cookies to provide and improve our services. By using our site, you consent to our Cookies Policy. Accept We will study all the header and body tags in subsequent chapters, but for now let's see what is document declaration tag. Learn more Home <!DOCTYPE> Jobs Coding Ground Current Affairs The Declaration UPSC Notes Online Tutors Whiteboard Net Meeting Tutorix The <!DOCTYPE> declaration tag is used by the web browser to understand the version of the HTML usedSearch in theyour document. Current version of favorite tutorials. tutorials HTML is 5 and it makes use of the following declaration − <!DOCTYPE html> There are many other declaration types which can be used in HTML document depending on what version of HTML is being used. We will see more details on this while discussing <!DOCTYPE...> tag along with other HTML tags. HTML - Basic Tags Heading Tags Any document starts with a heading. You can use different sizes for your headings. HTML also has six levels of headings, which use the elements <h1>, <h2>, <h3>, <h4>, <h5>, and <h6>. While displaying any heading, browser adds one line before and one line after that heading. Example Live Demo <!DOCTYPE html> <html> <head> <title>Heading Example</title> </head> <body> <h1>This <h2>This <h3>This <h4>This <h5>This <h6>This </body> </html> is is is is is is heading heading heading heading heading heading 1</h1> 2</h2> 3</h3> 4</h4> 5</h5> 6</h6> We use cookies to provide and improve our services. By using our site, you consent to our Cookies Policy. Accept Learn more This will produce the following resultCurrent − Home Jobs Coding Ground Affairs UPSC Notes This is heading 1 Online Tutors Whiteboard Net Meeting Tutorix Search your favorite tutorials. tutorials This is heading 2 This is heading 3 This is heading 4 This is heading 5 This is heading 6 Paragraph Tag The <p> tag offers a way to structure your text into different paragraphs. Each paragraph of text should go in between an opening <p> and a closing </p> tag as shown below in the example − Example Live Demo <!DOCTYPE html> <html> <head> <title>Paragraph Example</title> </head> <body> <p>Here is a first paragraph of text.</p> <p>Here is a second paragraph of text.</p> <p>Here is a third paragraph of text.</p> </body> </html> We use cookies to provide and improve our services. By using our site, you consent to our Cookies Policy. Accept Learn more This will produce the following resultCurrent − Home Jobs Coding Ground Affairs UPSC Notes Here is a first paragraph of text. Online Tutors Whiteboard Net Meeting Tutorix Search your favorite tutorials. tutorials Here is a second paragraph of text. Here is a third paragraph of text. Line Break Tag Whenever you use the <br /> element, anything following it starts from the next line. This tag is an example of an empty element, where you do not need opening and closing tags, as there is nothing to go in between them. The <br /> tag has a space between the characters br and the forward slash. If you omit this space, older browsers will have trouble rendering the line break, while if you miss the forward slash character and just use <br> it is not valid in XHTML. Example Live Demo <!DOCTYPE html> <html> <head> <title>Line Break </head> Example</title> <body> <p>Hello<br /> You delivered your assignment ontime.<br /> Thanks<br /> Mahnaz</p> </body> </html> This will produce the following result − We use cookies to provide and improve our services. By using our site, you consent to our Cookies Policy. Accept Learn more Home Jobs Coding Ground Current Affairs Jobs Coding Ground Current Affairs Hello You delivered your assignment on time. Thanks Mahnaz UPSC Notes Online Tutors Whiteboard Net Meeting Tutorix Search your favorite tutorials. tutorials Centering Content You can use <center> tag to put any content in the center of the page or any table cell. Example Live Demo <!DOCTYPE html> <html> <head> <title>Centring Content Example</title> </head> <body> <p>This text is not in the center.</p> <center> <p>This text is in the center.</p> </center> </body> </html> This will produce following result − This text is not in the center. This text is in the center. We use cookies to provide and improve our services. By using our site, you consent to our Cookies Policy. Accept Learn more Home Jobs Lines Coding Ground Horizontal Current Affairs UPSC Notes Online Tutors Whiteboard Net Meeting Tutorix Horizontal lines are used to visually break-up sections of a document. The <hr> tag creates a line from the current position in the document to the Search your favorite tutorials. tutorials right margin and breaks the line accordingly. For example, you may want to give a line between two paragraphs as in the given example below − Example Live Demo <!DOCTYPE html> <html> <head> <title>Horizontal Line Example</title> </head> <body> <p>This is paragraph one and should be on top</p> <hr /> <p>This is paragraph two and should be at bottom</p> </body> </html> This will produce the following result − This is paragraph one and should be on top This is paragraph two and should be at bottom Again <hr /> tag is an example of the empty element, where you do not need opening and closing tags, as there is nothing to go in between them. The <hr /> element has a space between the characters hr and the forward slash. If you omit this space, older browsers will have trouble rendering the horizontal line, while if you miss the forward slash character and just use <hr> it is not valid in XHTML We use cookies to provide and improve our services. By using our site, you consent to our Cookies Policy. Preserve Formatting Accept Learn more Sometimes, you want your text to follow the exact format of how it isOnline written in the HTML document. In these cases, you can use the preformatted tag Home Jobs Coding Ground Current Affairs UPSC Notes Tutors Whiteboard Net Meeting Tutorix <pre>. Search your favorite tutorials. tutorials Any text between the opening <pre> tag and the closing </pre> tag will preserve the formatting of the source document. Example Live Demo <!DOCTYPE html> <html> <head> <title>Preserve Formatting Example</title> </head> <body> <pre> function testFunction( strText ){ alert (strText) } </pre> </body> </html> This will produce the following result − function testFunction( strText ){ alert (strText) } Try using the same code without keeping it inside <pre>...</pre> tags Nonbreaking Spaces Suppose you want to use the phrase "12 Angry Men." Here, you would not want a browser to split the "12, Angry" and "Men" across two lines − An example of this technique appears in the movie "12 Angry Men." We use cookies to provide and improve our services. By using our site, you consent to our Cookies Policy. Accept Learn more In cases, where you do not want theCurrent clientAffairs browser to break text, you should use aWhiteboard nonbreaking space entity &nbsp; instead of a normal space. For Home Jobs Coding Ground UPSC Notes Online Tutors Net Meeting Tutorix example, when coding the "12 Angry Men" in a paragraph, you should use something similar to the following code − Search your favorite tutorials. tutorials Example Live Demo <!DOCTYPE html> <html> <head> <title>Nonbreaking Spaces Example</title> </head> <body> <p>An example of this technique appears in the movie "12&nbsp;Angry&nbsp;Men."</p> </body> </html> This will produce the following result − An example of this technique appears in the movie "12 Angry Men." HTML - Elements An HTML element is defined by a starting tag. If the element contains other content, it ends with a closing tag, where the element name is preceded by a forward slash as shown below with few tags − Start Tag Content End Tag <p> This is paragraph content. </p> <h1> This is heading content. </h1> <div> We use cookies to provide and improve our services. By using our site, you consent to our Cookies Policy. This is division content. Accept </div> Learn more <br /> Home Jobs Coding Ground Current Affairs UPSC Notes Online Tutors Whiteboard Net Meeting Tutorix So here <p>....</p> is an HTML element, <h1>...</h1> is another HTML element. There are some HTML elements don't need to be closed, Search which your favorite tutorials. tutorials such as <img.../>, <hr /> and <br /> elements. These are known as void elements. HTML documents consists of a tree of these elements and they specify how HTML documents should be built, and what kind of content should be placed in what part of an HTML document. HTML Tag vs. Element An HTML element is defined by a starting tag. If the element contains other content, it ends with a closing tag. For example, <p> is starting tag of a paragraph and </p> is closing tag of the same paragraph but <p>This is paragraph</p> is a paragraph element. Nested HTML Elements It is very much allowed to keep one HTML element inside another HTML element − Example Live Demo <!DOCTYPE html> <html> <head> <title>Nested Elements Example</title> </head> <body> <h1>This is <i>italic</i> heading</h1> <p>This is <u>underlined</u> paragraph</p> </body> </html> This will display the following result − We use cookies to provide and improve our services. By using our site, you consent to our Cookies Policy. Accept Learn more Home Jobs Coding Ground Current Affairs This is italic heading UPSC Notes Online Tutors Whiteboard Net Meeting Tutorix Search your favorite tutorials. tutorials This is underlined paragraph HTML - Attributes We have seen few HTML tags and their usage like heading tags <h1>, <h2>, paragraph tag <p> and other tags. We used them so far in their simplest form, but most of the HTML tags can also have attributes, which are extra bits of information. An attribute is used to define the characteristics of an HTML element and is placed inside the element's opening tag. All attributes are made up of two parts − a name and a value The name is the property you want to set. For example, the paragraph <p> element in the example carries an attribute whose name is align, which you can use to indicate the alignment of paragraph on the page. The value is what you want the value of the property to be set and always put within quotations. The below example shows three possible values of align attribute: left, center and right. Attribute names and attribute values are case-insensitive. However, the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) recommends lowercase attributes/attribute values in their HTML 4 recommendation. Example Live Demo <!DOCTYPE html> <html> <head> <title>Align Attribute </head> Example</title> <body> <p align = "left">This is left aligned</p> <p align = "center">This is center aligned</p> <p align = cookies "right"to >This is and right aligned We use provide improve our</p> services. By using our site, you consent to our Cookies Policy. </body> Accept Learn more Home </html> Jobs Coding Ground Current Affairs UPSC Notes Online Tutors Whiteboard Net Meeting Tutorix Search your favorite tutorials. tutorials This will display the following result − This is left aligned This is center aligned This is right aligned Core Attributes The four core attributes that can be used on the majority of HTML elements (although not all) are − Id Title Class Style The Id Attribute The id attribute of an HTML tag can be used to uniquely identify any element within an HTML page. There are two primary reasons that you might want to use an id attribute on an element − If an element carries an id attribute as a unique identifier, it is possible to identify just that element and its content. If you have two elements of the same name within a Web page (or style sheet), you can use the id attribute to distinguish between elements that have the same name. We will discuss style sheet in separate tutorial. For now, let's use the id attribute to distinguish between two paragraph elements as shown below. Example <p id = "html">This para explains what is HTML</p> <p id = "css">This para explains what is Cascading Style Sheet</p> We use cookies to provide and improve our services. By using our site, you consent to our Cookies Policy. The title Attribute Accept Learn more The gives suggestedCurrent title for the element. for Tutors the title attribute is similar explainedTutorix for id attribute − Hometitle attribute Jobs CodingaGround Affairs UPSCThey Notes syntax Online Whiteboard Netas Meeting The behavior of this attribute will depend upon the element that carries it, although it is often displayed as a tooltip when cursor comes over the Search your favorite tutorials. tutorials element or while the element is loading. Example Live Demo <!DOCTYPE html> <html> <head> <title>The title Attribute Example</title> </head> <body> <h3 title = "Hello HTML!">Titled Heading Tag Example</h3> </body> </html> This will produce the following result − Titled Heading Tag Example Now try to bring your cursor over "Titled Heading Tag Example" and you will see that whatever title you used in your code is coming out as a tooltip of the cursor. The class Attribute The class attribute is used to associate an element with a style sheet, and specifies the class of element. You will learn more about the use of the class attribute when you will learn Cascading Style Sheet (CSS). So for now you can avoid it. The value of the attribute may also be a space-separated list of class names. For example − class = "className1 className2 className3" We use cookies to provide and improve our services. By using our site, you consent to our Cookies Policy. The style Attribute Accept Learn more The allows you to specify Cascading Style rules within the element. Homestyle attribute Jobs Coding Ground Current Affairs UPSCSheet Notes (CSS) Online Tutors Whiteboard Net Meeting Tutorix Live Demo <!DOCTYPE html> <html> Search your favorite tutorials. tutorials <head> <title>The style Attribute</title> </head> <body> <p style = "font-family:arial; color:#FF0000;">Some text...</p> </body> </html> This will produce the following result − Some text... At this point of time, we are not learning CSS, so just let's proceed without bothering much about CSS. Here, you need to understand what are HTML attributes and how they can be used while formatting content. Internationalization Attributes There are three internationalization attributes, which are available for most (although not all) XHTML elements. dir lang xml:lang The dir Attribute The dir attribute allows you to indicate to the browser about the direction in which the text should flow. The dir attribute can take one of two values, as you can see in the table that follows − Value We use cookies to provide and improve our services. By using our site, you consent to our Cookies Policy. Meaning Accept Learn more ltr ltr Home rtl LeftCoding to rightGround (the default value) Jobs Current Affairs UPSC Notes Online Tutors Whiteboard Net Meeting Right to left (for languages such as Hebrew or Arabic that are read right to left) Tutorix Search your favorite tutorials. tutorials Example Live Demo <!DOCTYPE html> <html dir = "rtl"> <head> <title>Display Directions</title> </head> <body> This is how IE 5 renders right-to-left directed text. </body> </html> This will produce the following result − .This is how IE 5 renders right-to-left directed text When dir attribute is used within the <html> tag, it determines how text will be presented within the entire document. When used within another tag, it controls the text's direction for just the content of that tag. The lang Attribute The lang attribute allows you to indicate the main language used in a document, but this attribute was kept in HTML only for backwards compatibility with earlier versions of HTML. This attribute has been replaced by the xml:lang attribute in new XHTML documents. The values of the lang attribute are ISO-639 standard two-character language codes. Check HTML Language Codes: ISO 639 of language codes. for a complete list Example We use cookies to provide and improve our services. By using our site, you consent to our Cookies Policy. Accept Learn more Live Demo Home Jobs <!DOCTYPE html> Coding Ground Current Affairs UPSC Notes Online Tutors Whiteboard Net Meeting Tutorix <html lang = "en"> Search your favorite tutorials. tutorials <head> <title>English Language Page</title> </head> <body> This page is using English Language </body> </html> This will produce the following result − This page is using English Language The xml:lang Attribute The xml:lang attribute is the XHTML replacement for the lang attribute. The value of the xml:lang attribute should be an ISO-639 country code as mentioned in previous section. Generic Attributes He...
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