UNIT 3 EXAM REVIEW - Unit 3 Review 1 10 What is the correct...

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Unformatted text preview: Unit 3 Review 1. 10. What is the correct order of impulse conduction through a reflex are? Give an example of a common simple, stretch and spinal reflex. Receptor, sensory neuron, interneuron, motor neuron, effector, Knee jerlo’patellar reflex is an example of all three types. What bodily fluid is contained within the central canal of the spinal cord? Cerebrospinal fluid Where do syrupemetic/parasympathetic motor neurons originate? Where is the ganglia for each system located? Sympathetic — originate in thoracic and lumbar regions, sympathetic chain ganglia Parasympathetic — originate in the cranial and sacral regions, terminal ganglia Name the effects of the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems on pupils, digestion, heart, bronchi of lungs, bladder, liver, adrenal medulla, and blood pressure. Sympathetic — pupil dilation, decreases digestion, increases heart rate, dilation of lung bronchi, relaxation of bladder, increases release of glucose in liver, stimulation of adrenal medulla, increases blood pressure Parasympathetic — pupil constriction, increased digestion, decreases heart rate, constriction of lung bronchi, emptying of bladder, no effect on liver, no effect on adrenal medulla, decrease in blood pressure Know the difference between central and peripheral nervous systems. Central — includes brain and spinal cord Peripheral. _ includes cranial and spinal nerves Which direction do axons and dendrites conduct their impulses? Axons — away from the cell body Dendrites —- towards the cell body What are the differences between Schwann cells and neurilemma‘? Schwann cells — special connective tissue cells in the peripheral nervous system that wrap around the axon depositing layers of myelin that speeds conduction. Neurilemma — outermost membrane of the Schwann cells which helps some peripheral nerves to repair themselves when injured Compare afferent and efferent neurons. Afferent — to the brain and spinal cord, sensory neurons Efferent — from the brain and spinal cord, motor neurons What are the functions of neuroglia? Protects nervous tissue, support nervous tissue and bind it to other structures, aid in repair of cells, act as phagocytes to remove pathogens and impurities, regulate the composition of fluids around and between cells What happens to Na+ and K+ during each step of an action potential? Resting — more Na outside, more K outside Depolarization — Na enters Repolarization — K leaves Resting — Na and K conCentrations restored '11. What type of neuron resides in the dorsal and ventral horn of the spinal cord? Dorsal horn — sensory neurons Ventral horn — motor neurons 12. What are the three branches of the spinal nerves and Where do they send impulses? Cervical plexus — muscles of neck Brachial plexus — shoulder, aim, forearm, wrist, and hand Lumbosacral plexus — pelvis and legs 13. What are the functions of the cerebrum and the cerebellum? Cerebrum —— conscious thought, memory, reasoning, and abstract mental functions Cerebellum ~ coordinates voluntary muscles, maintains balance and muscle tone 14. What is the function of the dural sinuses? Drain blood from the brain 15. Define the three meninges. Dura mater —— outer layer, thickest and toughest layer Arachnoid — middle layer, cerebral spinal fluid flows though Pia mater — inner layer, sofi layer connected to the nervous tissue 16. What does the cerebral aqueduct connect? The third and fourth ventricles 17. Which lobes are separated by the central sulcus and lateral sulcus? Central sulcus — lies between fiontal and parietal lobes Lateral sulcus — lies between temporal and parietal lobes 18. Where is the occipital lobe and What is its function? Lies posterior to the parietal lobe, most posterior part ofthe ccrebrum. It deals with Visual information processing. 19. Where are impulses from the skin interpreted? Primary sensory area of the parietal lobe 20. What is the function of the pens and midbrain? Poms — To relay information to and item the midbrain and medulla Midbrain _ relay centers for the eye and car 21. Which nerve controls movement of the eye? The tongue? The sense of smell? Eye — oculornotor, tongue — hypoglossal, smell - olfactory. 22. What forms the cerebral spinal fluid? Choroids plexus 23. Define epidural and subdural hemotorna. Epidural — bleeding be‘oveen the dura mater and the skull Subdural — blood in the subdural space 24. What is epilepsy and multi-infarct dementia? Epilepsy — a condition characterized by abnormal electrical activity in the brain that results in seizures 25. What vital centers are controlled by the medulla ohlongata? The respiratory center, cardiac center, vasomotor center. 26. What are the differences between Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease? Alzheimer’s — unexplained degeneration of the cerebral cortex and hippocampus, causes severe intellectual impairment, mood changes and confiision. Parkinson’s — progressive neurologic condition characterized by tremors, rigidity of limbs and joints, slow movement, and impaired balance. Caused by loss of cells producing dopamine. 27. What are the special senses? Vision, hearing, equilibrium, taste and smell 28. Describe the three tunics of the eye. Sclera ~ outermost layer, white connective tissue Choroid ~ middle layer, blood vessels Retina — innermost layer, receptive layer 29. What allow the eye to focus on near and far objects? The lens and ciliary muscle 30. What is the blind spot? The optic disk 31. Define fovea centralis. The point of sharpest Vision. 32. What gland produces tears? Earwax? Tears - lacrirninal; Earwax - ceruminous 33. What are the two receptors for vision? Which is sensitive to color? Rods and cones, cones are sensitive to color 34. What is rhodopsin? The rod pigment that is sensitive to light, visual purple. 35. What is the function of the iris? ' in bright light, circular muscles contract and limit the light allowed in the eye (pupil constriction). In dim light, radial muscles contract and allow more light to enter the eye (pupil dilation). 36. What is the tympanic membrane? The eardrum 37. What is the location of the ossicles? Malleus — touches tympanic membrane Incus — in the middle Stapes e in contact with the inner ear 38. Where are the receptors for hearing located? in the cochlea 39. What detects static/dynamic equilibrium? Vesibule — static equilibrium, walking straight, head tilt Semicircular canal ~ dynamic equilibrium, spinning 40. Where are bitter tastes localized on the tongue? At the posterior part of the tongue. 41. What are the receptors for pain? Free nerve endings 42. What is an analgesic. A drug that relieves pain 43. Define otosclerosis? A hereditary bone disorder that prevents normal vibration of the stapes. 44. Vitamin A is needed to prevent . Night Blindness 45. Where is the thyroid gland located? Around the larynx 46. Where are the islets of Langerhans found? pancreas 47. What hormones are secreted by the adrenal cortex? Cortisol, aldosterone, sex hormones 48. What two hormones are considered gonadotropins? Follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone 49. Which hormones are Erodnced in the posterior pituitary? none 50. What are the effects of oxytocin release? Contractions of the uterus and milk ejection from breasts 51. What releases calcitonin and What purpose does its release serve? Thyroid gland — active in calcium metabolism 52. Is aidosterone a glucocorticoid or a mineraiocorticoid? mineralocorticoid 53, Define infundihulum Stalk connecting the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland 54. Inadequate amounts of ADH can lead to what condition? Diabetes insipidus 55. Myredema is caused by? An underactive thyroid gland 56. Which hormone increases sodium loss and lowers blood pressure? Atrial natriuretic hormone 57. What is a common treatment for anaphylaxis? epinephrine 58. What hormones are commonly found in oral contraceptives? estrogen and progesterone 59. What is a tropic hormone? A hormone that controls another gland 60. Which hormone opposes the effect of calcitonin? (hint: which hormone increases calcium level in the blood?) Parathyroid hormone ...
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