Emma TrohaTextbook Pages 180-182Page 180: 1.Coral Reefs are a type of aquatic ecosystem that house many different species of plants and animals including anemones, fish, and coral. Coral reefsare extremely important to biodiversity around the world because they housemany types of fish that would otherwise go extinct, and can affect other species. 2.71% of the Earth’s surface is covered in water, there are 2 types of aquatic ecosystems, freshwater and saltwater. Organisms include: Rays, Zooplankton, or Jellyfish. Middle Layers: Sharks, Squids, or Pelican Eels. Bottom layers: Vampire Squid, Anglerfish, or Abyssal Spadefish. Plankton: Phytoplankton, Zooplankton, and Bacteria. Decomposers: breakdown dead organisms. The five factors that affect aquatic life zones: water flow rate, salinity, acidity, oxygen, light levels, depth, and temperature. 3.3 oceanic life zones: coastal, coral reefs, and the open ocean. coastal zone- land and sea touch, and the open ocean occurs where there is no land touching the water for miles. Marine systems provide tourism, maintain biodiversity, and provide food and energy for consumption. An estuary is where freshwater from rivers and streams meets the ocean, and a coastal wetlands are areas of saltwater marshes. . . Rocky shores are more difficult habitats and are characterized by the species that inhabit them, while sandy shores are easier to inhabit, so biodiversity is greater. The open sea has lower
productivity because less light is able to reach it, therefore there is less biodiversity and energy flow.4.Some of these activities would include pollution and waste dumping, fishing, and overfishing certain areas5.The Chesapeake Bay is in trouble because of human activity and a lack of conservation. People must stop dumping chemicals into it and start cleaning it up, along with ending overfishing. 6.Lakes are a vital part of our ecosystem, one that we cannot function without.Freshwater lakes give us biodiversity within zones, the top layer, the littoral zone, the middle layer is the limnetic zone and the bottom layer is the profundal zone. Oligotrophic lakes have few nutrients whereas eutrophic Lakes contain a large supply of nutrients. Humans have increased this through cultural etrophication.