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Unformatted text preview: Unit 1 Exam Review 1. How do the directional planes (frontal, transverse, sagittal) divide the body?
Frontal — divides the body into anterior and posterior sections Transverse— divides thebody into superior and inferior sections Sagittal — divides the body into right and left sections What is the correct order of mitosis and what happens during each stage? ‘
Prophase — doubled strands of DNA return to their organization, nucleus begins to
disappear, centrioles move to Opposite ends , Metaphase — the chromosomes line up across the center of the cell attached to the Spindle
ﬁbers ,, ' Anaphase - the centromere splits and the duplicated chromosomes separate and begin to
move towards opposite ends Telophase — a membrane appears around each group of separated chromosomes forming
two new nuclei 7 ‘ What is another name for areolar tissue? Loose connective tissue What are proteins composed of? Amino Acids What is another name for a scratch? Excoriation Deﬁne metabolism, catabolism, and anabolism. Metabolism — all life sustaining reactions that go on within thebody Catabolism — the breakdown of nutrients into simple compounds Anabolisrn - simple compounds are used to manufacture materials needed What is a buffer system? i A system that stabilizes pH of. body ﬂuids Which stain can be used to identify tuberculosis? Acid-fast stain Define pustule, papute, vesicle, and macule. Pustule — vesicle titled with pus Papule .- a ﬁrm raised area of skin Vesicle — a blister or small sac that is full of ﬂuid _ Macule — a spot that is neither raised nor depressed 10. 11. 12. 13. Which organs are contained in the thoracic, abdominal and pelvic cavities?
Thoracic — heart, lungs Abdominal- stomach, intestines Pelvic - bladder, reproductive organs What are the secretions of endocrine glands,vsudoriferous glands and sebaceous
glands? r Endocrine — hormones. Sudoriferous — sweat. Sebaceous — oil. What is another name for a bedsore? ‘ Decubitus ulcer What is the difference betWeen negative and positive feedback? Positive feedback — a biological process is increased by its own product
Negative feedback — a biological process is decreased by its own product 14.
15. 1B. 17.
20. 21. 22.
25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. . Hair and nails, stratum corneum What are osteocytes? A mature bone cell , - What is the purpose of the subcutaneous layer of skin? it connects the skin to the surface of the muscles ‘ What are the basic units of weight, length, volume and temperature in the metric
system? Know how to convert between milli, centi, etc. A
Weight — gram. Length — meter. Volume - liter. Temperature —- Celsius. What machine is used in sterilization? The autoclave What region of the abdomen is'in the most inferior medial region?
Hypcgastric region What are the components of a nucleotide? Nitrogen base, phosphate unit, sugar unit Why isthe plasma membrane of a cell called ‘selectively penneabie’? 7
Because it is permeable to some molecules but impassable to Others What are the different functions of a channel, receptor, and transporter in the cell
membrane? Channel— pores in the membrane that allow speciﬁc substances to enter or leave
Receptor — allows for the attachment of substances to the membrane Transporter — shuttle substances from one side of the membrane to the other
What happens to cells when placed in a hypertonic or hypotonic solution?
Hypertonic - cells shrink ' '
Hypotonic — cells swell What do Meissner and Pacinian corpuscles respond to? Meissner — light touch Pacinian — deep pressure What does keratin make up and what cells make the keratin? What does the prefix eryth? mean? red What are the functions of the skin? Protection against infection and dehydration, regulation of body temperature,» collection of
sensory information. ' '
What is a means of protection against hookwonns? Wearing shoes ‘ Define exocytosis, endocytosis, and pinocytosis. Exocytosis — the tranSport of bulk materials out of the cell using vesicles
Endocytosis - the bulk movement of materials into the cell Pinocytosis —- the cell membrane engulfs droplets of ﬂuid What is the difference between prognosis anddiagnosis? Prognosis — a prediction of the probable outcome of a diseased based on the condition of
the patient and knowledge of the disease Diagnosis — reach a conclusion as to the nature of the illness What is the element tron used for in the body? Part of hemoglobin that carries oxygen in red blood cells Which types of muscle are voluntarylinvoluntary? SkeletaliStriated - voluntary, Smooth, cardiac, visceral — involuntary. 32. 33. 34. 35.
36. 37. 38.
41. 42. 43. 44. 46. 47. What is the difference between hydrophilic and hydrophobic substances?
Hydrophilic — mixes easily with water. Hydrophobic — repels water. Define obligate intracellular parasite and give an example. Can only live in living cells; a virus. What do diplococci, staphylococci, and streptococci look like? Dipiococci — round bacteria, arranged in pairs. Staphylococci —' round bacteria, arranged like a string of beads Streptococci — round bacteria, seen in large clusters What is the correct order of organization in the body from simple to complex?
Chemical, cell, tissue, organ, organ system, organism What is an electrocardiogram? - A graphical tracing of the electric current generated by the heart What is the difference between dendrites and axons? Dendrites conduct a nerve impulse towards the cell body and Axons conduct a nerve
impulse away from the cell body. Chickenpox and shingles are both caused by the same _Virus . What is the energy currency of the cell and which types of movement across the
membrane require this energy? ATP (adenosine triphosphate). Active transport, endocytosis, exocytosis Which types of tumors are malignant? Carcinoma, sarcoma Which pH is considered acidic, basic and neutral? 1-5 acidic, 7 neutral, 8-12 basic What does the ribosome manufacture for the cell and what is its role in
TRANSLATlON? , _ Proteins; ribosomes receive information from the messenger RNA and amino acids from
the transfer RNA in order to build proteins. What is normal flora? Microorganisms that are beneﬁcial to our bodies. What forms our ﬁngerprints? Dermal papillae . Deﬁne anatomy and physiology. Anatomy — the structure of the body Physiology — the function of the body What is the difference between ultrasound, computed tomography and magnetic
resonance imaging? Ultrasound — the use of reﬂected high-frequency sound waves to differentiate various kinds
of tissue. Computed tomography — the use of x-rays to produce a cross-sectional picture of body
parts ' '
Magnetic resonance imaging - the use of magnetic ﬁeldsand radio waves to show
changes in soft tissue. V What type of bacteria causes syphilis and Lyme disease? Spirochetes 48. Deﬁne solute, solvent, solution, suspension and colloid.
Solute — A substance that is dissolved in another substance
Solvent — A substance that dissolves another substance
Solution — homogenous mixture formed when one substance dissolves in another
Suspension - heterogeneous mixture in which one substance is dispersed in another
Colloid — heterogeneous mixture in which the suspended material remains evenly
distributed but molecules do not dissolve ‘
49. What is the difference between a tendon and a ligament?
A tendon connects a bone to-a muscle, a ligament connects a bone to a bone.
50. What sufﬁx is typically added to the name of an enzyme? All enzymes are proteins.
-ase . I
51. What are the charge and location of protons, electrons and neutrons?
Protons — positive, in nucleus. Neutrons — no charge, in nucleus. Electrons — negative —
outside nucleus. ‘ ‘
52. Define caudal, cranial, ventral and dorsal.
Caudal — towards the sacral part of the spinal cord
Cranial -— towards the head
Ventral - towards the belly
Dorsal — towards the back
53. What is the difference between epidemic, pandemic and endemic?
Epidemic -— if many people in a given region acquire a certain disease at the same time
Pandemic — a disease that is prevalent throughout an entire country or continent, or the
whole world V
Endemic — a given disease is found to a lesser extent but continuousiy in a given region
54. What is peritonitis? -
inﬂammation of the serous membrane within the abdominal cavity
55. What is the function of the nucleolus?
Assembles ribosomes ...
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- Spring '08