Persuasion Review Number Two

Persuasion Review Number Two - Persuasion Review Number Two...

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Persuasion Review Number Two Chapter Five 1) Carl Hovland —conducted the first detailed, empirical research on the effects of persuasive communications Research was called the Yale Attitude Approach a) Distinctive because it provided facts on communicator’s credibility, message appeals, and audience member’s personality traits b) Theory-driven approach and commitment to testing hypotheses were what remained in the long run 2) Yale Attitude Approach (Ctd.) Set out to examine who said what to whom with what effect a) Why do messages change attitudes? b) Influenced by reward-based learning theories—emphasized the learning aspect of persuasion (aka the more learned a person is, the more likely they will be able to retain the message) Problem—it assumes people sit there and absorb arguments like a sponge and passively take in information a) Not actively thinking about defenses, criticisms, ect. 3) Cognitive Response Approach to Persuasion Asserts that people’s own mental reactions to a message play a critical role in the persuasion process (sometimes even more so than the messages themselves) a) Proarguments—thoughts that are favorable to the position advocated in the message b) Counterarguments—thoughts that criticize the message Persuasion occurs if the communicator induces the audience member to generate favorable cognitive responses regarding the communicator or message a) Emphasizes people’s own thoughts about message are more important than just remembering a message Showed scholarly understanding of persuasion 4) Forewarning—occurs when persuader warns people that they will soon be exposed to a persuasive communication Generally reduces the likelihood that the persuasive communication will succeed 5) Distraction—when people are distracted from paying attention to a communication with which they disagree People can be more highly susceptible to persuasion in this case because they are distracted from forming counterarguments in their mind 6) Buller and Hall (1998) Displayed evidence that countered the argument that distraction helps to facilitate persuasion
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Raised the possibility that cognitive responses could influence attitude change—suggested new ideas for everyday persuasion 7) Innoculation Theory Argues that a weak dose to an argument strengthens defense against that argument (not so strong that it overwhelms though) We have learned that it can both be used in politics, and offer a helpful technique to help people resist unwanted influence attempts Pratkanis and Aaronson (1992) a) Research on this stuff b) Said people who are easiest to persuade are those who’s thoughts have never been seriously challenged 8) Ratcliff (1999) Asked students to think about actions that might make studying enjoyable a) Students responded more positively to studying Argued that if you think positively, then you will end up reforming your attitude toward that undesirable thing 9) Placebo effect—the tendency of patients to get better not because of med.
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