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Review Sheet filled 18/03/2008 23:53:00 Aristotle Notion of happiness or eudaimonia (flourishing) o Happiness is highest/most complete good o It is pursued for itself o Other things are pursued for the sake of it o It is not pursued for the sake of anything else o Happiness = eudaimonia = flourishing o Eudaimonia focuses on whole life, not just individual moments o Means of happiness – virtue, honor, money, good looks, etc. “function” argument (human function = rationality) o human function is rationality o what is good for the human? .... virtue o what is the human good for?...reason/rationality – distinctive function  not shared with plants or animals. We can weigh consequences. relation of virtue to happiness (central ingredient) o virtue is the constitutive means of happiness. o virtue is similar to a craft (learn by doing) different from a craft because  in a craft only the product matters, while the consequences of virtue  add to the craft. definition of virtue as a mean between extremes o mean between excess and deficiency ( FEAR, won’t be a coward,  won’t be reckless….mean is courage) The three kinds of friendship o 1. Utility – looking for some sort of advantage from the other person  (INCOMPLETE)
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business relationship using someone for popularity politicians o 2. Pleasure – only getting pleasure from the other person  one-night stand (INCOMPLETE) o 3. Character / virtue – COMPLETE type of friendship Importance of the life of study o most continuous and most self-sufficient (could study by yourself) done  in leisure godlike….beholding the truth…beholding beauty  (contemplation) mystical understanding of things. Epictetus Notion of happiness, compared with Aristotle’s o Aristotle thinks that Happiness (includes virtue, friends, study, good  looks, wealth), while Epictetus thinks that virtue is the only means to  happiness. Happiness = virtue = correct judgement based on correct  impressions o Correct impressions means focusing on things that are in our power  (our actions/our choices) and not in our power (morally indifferent) o So, for Aristotle, it’s about the whole life, not just individual moments  like Epictetus >>>Relation of virtue to happiness o Happiness is based on virtue o Happiness = virtue = correct judgement based on correct impressions o Correct impressions means focusing on things that are in our power  (our actions/our choices) and not in our power (morally indifferent) 
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