BIOL 301.pdf - UNIT 1 - INTRODUCTION Anatomy is the study...

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UNIT 1 - INTRODUCTIONAnatomy is the study of structure of a living organism and its component parts1.Gross anatomy: regional and systemic2.Microscopic anatomy: histology3.Other branches: developmental anatomy, embryology, pathological anatomy, radiographicanatomy, and functional morphologyLiving organisms have several levels of organizationa.Chemical - atoms and moleculesb.Cellular - neuron, and lymphocytec.Tissue - collection of cells eg. connectived.Organ - structural unit made of tissues eg. hearte.Organ system - integrated group of organsf.Organism - individual form of lifeIn the anatomical position the thumbs face anteriorly with the thumbs pointing away from the body.Gross anatomyspecific areas of the body are grouped into regional terms-Axial region: head, neck and trunk-Appendicular region: appendages and extremitiesBody planes and sections-Frontal (coronal) plane: extends vertically and divides body into posterior and anterior-Transverse (horizontal) plane: divides body into superior and inferior-Sagittal planes: extends vertically and divides into left and right-Midsagittal → equal left and right halves-Parasagittal → unequal division of left and right partsThe body can be divided into the dorsal and ventral body cavities1.Dorsal body cavitya.Cranial cavity: lies in the skull and encases the brainb.Vertebral cavity: runs down the vertebral column and encloses the spinal cord2.Ventral body cavity → contains visceral organs or viscera-Two main divisions that are separated by the diaphragma.Thoracic cavity: surrounded by ribs and muscles of chestb.Abdominopelvic cavity: surrounded by abdominal walls and pelvic girdleDirectional terms-Anterior (ventral): towards the front of the body-Posterior (dorsal): towards the back of the body-Superior (cranial): above, towards the head-Inferior (caudal) below, towards tail-Medial: towards the midline of the body-Lateral: away from the midline of the body-Proximal: near the body trunk or point of attachment-Distal: farther from the body trunk or point of attachment-Superficial (external): towards surface of the body
-Deep (internal): away from the surface of the body-Ipsilateral: on the same side of the body-Contralateral: on opposite sides of the body-Synovial joints are freely moveable joints in the body (majority of joints)-Gliding, anglular-flexion/ extension → decrease angle flexion = increase angle extension-adduction/abductionarms beside your bodyarms away from your body-circumduction→ circular motions, arms legs etc.-Rotation: going about an axis-Pronation/ supination→ movement of forearmspalm is facing forwardpalms pronation posterior (palm facing back)-inversion/eversionsole towards midlinesole away from midline-dorsiflexion/plantar flexion→ movement across ankle jointFlexed footpointed footUNIT 2 - SKELETAL SYSTEMTo abduct is to move away from the midline of the bodySkeletal system-The skeletal system is composed of: bones, cartilage and joints-These form an internal framework of the body (provides support, protection, movement etc)

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Term
Fall
Professor
Pickard
Tags
Anatomy, Embryology, zygomatic bone, frontal bone, flat bone

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