Phillip E Pack - Cliffsnotes AP Biology, 5th Edition-Cliffs Notes (2016).pdf - About the Author Phillip E Pack Ph.D taught AP Biology for 11 years He is

Phillip E Pack - Cliffsnotes AP Biology, 5th Edition-Cliffs Notes (2016).pdf

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Unformatted text preview: About the Author Phillip E. Pack, Ph.D., taught AP Biology for 11 years. He is currently Professor of Biology at Woodbury University in Burbank, California. He teaches courses in biology, human biology, botany, field botany, environmental studies, and evolution, and co-teaches various interdisciplinary courses, including energy and society (with architecture faculty) and natural history of California and nature writing (with English faculty). Editorial Executive Editor: Greg Tubach Senior Editor: Christina Stambaugh Production Editor: Erika West Copy Editor: Catherine Schwenk Technical Editors: Kellie Ploeger Cox, Ph.D.; Ken Crawford, Ph.D.; and Scott Ryan Proofreader: Lynn Northrup CliffsNotes® AP® Biology, 5th Edition Copyright © 2017 Phillip E. Pack All rights reserved. Library of Congress Control Number: 2016950290 ISBN: 978-0-544-78468-0 (pbk) eISBN: 978-0-544-78417-8 v1.1116 For information about permission to reproduce selections from this book, write to [email protected] or to Permissions, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company, 3 Park Avenue, 19th Floor, New York, New York 10016. THE PUBLISHER AND THE AUTHOR MAKE NO REPRESENTATIONS OR WARRANTIES WITH RESPECT TO THE ACCURACY OR COMPLETENESS OF THE CONTENTS OF THIS WORK AND SPECIFICALLY DISCLAIM ALL WARRANTIES, INCLUDING WITHOUT LIMITATION WARRANTIES OF FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. NO WARRANTY MAY BE CREATED OR EXTENDED BY SALES OR PROMOTIONAL MATERIALS. THE ADVICE AND STRATEGIES CONTAINED HEREIN MAY NOT BE SUITABLE FOR EVERY SITUATION. THIS WORK IS SOLD WITH THE UNDERSTANDING THAT THE PUBLISHER IS NOT ENGAGED IN RENDERING LEGAL, ACCOUNTING, OR OTHER PROFESSIONAL SERVICES. IF PROFESSIONAL ASSISTANCE IS REQUIRED, THE SERVICES OF A COMPETENT PROFESSIONAL PERSON SHOULD BE SOUGHT. NEITHER THE PUBLISHER NOR THE AUTHOR SHALL BE LIABLE FOR DAMAGES ARISING HEREFROM. THE FACT THAT AN ORGANIZATION OR WEBSITE IS REFERRED TO IN THIS WORK AS A CITATION AND/OR A POTENTIAL SOURCE OF FURTHER INFORMATION DOES NOT MEAN THAT THE AUTHOR OR THE PUBLISHER ENDORSES THE INFORMATION THE ORGANIZATION OR WEBSITE MAY PROVIDE OR RECOMMENDATIONS IT MAY MAKE. FURTHER, READERS SHOULD BE AWARE THAT INTERNET WEBSITES LISTED IN THIS WORK MAY HAVE CHANGED OR DISAPPEARED BETWEEN WHEN THIS WORK WAS WRITTEN AND WHEN IT IS READ. Trademarks: CliffsNotes, the CliffsNotes logo, Cliffs, CliffsAP, CliffsComplete, CliffsQuickReview, CliffsStudySolver, CliffsTestPrep, CliffsNote-a-Day, cliffsnotes.com, and all related trademarks, logos, and trade dress are trademarks or registered trademarks of Houghton Mifflin Harcourt and/or its affiliates. AP is a trademark registered and/or owned by the College Board, which was not involved in the production of, and does not endorse, this product. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt is not associated with any product or vendor mentioned in this book. To Mary and Megan Acknowledgments I am the author of this book, but there are many who have contributed to its final form. Many thanks go to Patty Compeau and her AP Biology students at La Canada High School for their valuable suggestions and corrections to early chapters of this book. I am also indebted to students past and present at Woodbury University for their challenging questions and their stimulating discussions. It is no exaggeration to say that I am a student in my own classroom. I am grateful for the support and encouragement of the editorial team: to Catherine Schwenk, copy editor, for her attention to detail; to Kellie Ploeger Cox, Ken Crawford, and Scott Ryan, technical editors, for their attention to accuracy; and to Christina Stambaugh, for her penetrating questions and insightful suggestions. A special thanks to Greg Tubach for his persistent encouragement and unending prodding, without which I’d still be writing a chapter somewhere in the middle of the book. Finally, I would like to thank my wife, Mary McGinnis, and daughter, Megan McGinnisPack, for their patience, love, and understanding through the course of this project. Table of Contents Chapter 1: An Overview of the AP Biology Exam How You Should Use This Book What to Bring to the Exam Exam Format Exam Grading What’s on the Exam Strategies for Multiple-Choice Questions Strategies for Grid-In Questions Strategies for Free-Response Questions Taking the Practice Exams PART I: SUBJECT AREA REVIEWS WITH REVIEW QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS Chapter 2: Chemistry Review Atoms, Molecules, Ions, and Bonds Properties of Water Organic Molecules Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins Nucleic Acids Chemical Reactions in Metabolic Processes Review Questions Multiple-Choice Questions Free-Response Questions Short Questions Long Question Answers and Explanations Multiple-Choice Questions Free-Response Questions Some Typical Answers to Short Questions A Typical Answer to Long Question Chapter 3: Cells Review Structure and Function of the Cell Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes Movement of Substances Review Questions Multiple-Choice Questions Free-Response Questions Short Questions Long Questions Answers and Explanations Multiple-Choice Questions Free-Response Questions Some Typical Answers to Short Questions Some Typical Answers to Long Questions Chapter 4: Cellular Respiration Review Energy Basics Generating ATP Glycolysis The Krebs Cycle Oxidative Phosphorylation Mitochondria Chemiosmosis in Mitochondria How Many ATP? Anaerobic Respiration Alcohol Fermentation Lactic Acid Fermentation Review Questions Multiple-Choice Questions Grid-In Question Free-Response Questions Short Questions Long Questions Answers and Explanations Multiple-Choice Questions Grid-In Question Free-Response Questions Some Typical Answers to Short Questions Some Typical Answers to Long Questions Chapter 5: Photosynthesis Review Noncyclic Photophosphorylation Cyclic Photophosphorylation Calvin Cycle Chloroplasts Chemiosmosis in Chloroplasts Photorespiration Capturing Free Energy Without Light Review Questions Multiple-Choice Questions Free-Response Questions Short Questions Long Question Answers and Explanations Multiple-Choice Questions Free-Response Questions Some Typical Answers to Short Questions A Typical Answer to Long Question Chapter 6: Cell Communication Review Signal Transduction Pathways Gated Ion Receptors G Protein-Coupled Receptors Protein Kinase Receptors Intracellular Receptors Disease and Cancer Review Questions Multiple-Choice Questions Free-Response Questions Short Questions Long Question Answers and Explanations Multiple-Choice Questions Free-Response Questions Some Typical Answers to Short Questions A Typical Answer to Long Question Chapter 7: Cell Division Review Mitosis and Cytokinesis Mitosis Cytokinesis Meiosis Mitosis versus Meiosis Genetic Variation Regulation of the Cell Cycle Review Questions Multiple-Choice Questions Free-Response Questions Short Questions Long Questions Answers and Explanations Multiple-Choice Questions Free-Response Questions Some Typical Answers to Short Questions Some Typical Answers to Long Questions Chapter 8: Heredity Review Complete Dominance, Monohybrid Cross Complete Dominance, Dihybrid Cross Test Crosses Incomplete Dominance Codominance Multiple Alleles Polygenic Inheritance Linked Genes and Crossing Over Sex Chromosomes and Sex-Linked Inheritance X-Inactivation Nondisjunction Human Genetic Disorders Environmental Influences on Phenotypic Expression Non-Nuclear Inheritance Review Questions Multiple-Choice Questions Grid-In Questions Free-Response Questions Short Questions Long Question Answers and Explanations Multiple-Choice Questions Grid-In Questions Some Typical Answers to Short Questions A Typical Answer to Long Question Chapter 9: Molecular Biology Review Early Experiments DNA Replication Replication of Telomeres DNA Repair Protein Synthesis Transcription mRNA Processing Translation Mutations Viruses Prokaryotes Regulation of Gene Expression Biotechnology DNA Cloning The Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) Gel Electrophoresis and DNA Fingerprinting Concerns About Biotechnology Review Questions Multiple-Choice Questions Free-Response Questions Short Questions Long Questions Answers and Explanations Multiple-Choice Questions Free-Response Questions Some Typical Answers to Short Questions Some Typical Answers to Long Questions Chapter 10: Evolution Review Evidence for Evolution Natural Selection Sources of Variation Causes of Changes in Allele Frequencies Genetic (Hardy-Weinberg) Equilibrium Speciation Maintaining Reproductive Isolation Patterns of Evolution Microevolution vs. Macroevolution The Origin of Life Review Questions Multiple-Choice Questions Grid-In Questions Free-Response Questions Short Questions Long Questions Answers and Explanations Multiple-Choice Questions Grid-In Questions Free-Response Questions Some Typical Answers to Short Questions Some Typical Answers to Long Questions Chapter 11: Biological Diversity Review Domain Bacteria Domain Archaea Domain Eukarya Kingdom Protista Kingdom Fungi Kingdom Plantae Kingdom Animalia Review Questions Multiple-Choice Questions Answers and Explanations Multiple-Choice Questions Chapter 12: Plants Review Gas Exchange in Plants Control of Stomata Transport in Plants Fruit Ripening Plant Responses to Abiotic Stimuli Photoperiodism and Flowering Plant Responses to Biotic Stimuli Review Questions Multiple-Choice Questions Free-Response Questions Short Questions Long Questions Answers and Explanations Multiple-Choice Questions Free-Response Questions Some Typical Answers to Short Questions Some Typical Answers to Long Questions Chapter 13: Animal Form and Function Review The Nervous System The Brain The Immune System The Endocrine System Thermoregulation The Respiratory System The Circulatory System The Excretory System The Digestive System The Muscular System Review Questions Multiple-Choice Questions Free-Response Questions Short Questions Long Questions Answers and Explanations Multiple-Choice Questions Free-Response Questions Some Typical Answers to Short Questions Some Typical Answers to Long Questions Chapter 14: Animal Reproduction and Development Review Characteristics That Distinguish the Sexes Gametogenesis in Humans Hormonal Control of Human Reproduction Factors That Influence Embryonic Development Mechanisms That Control Gene Expression Review Questions Multiple-Choice Questions Free-Response Questions Short Questions Long Questions Answers and Explanations Multiple-Choice Questions Free-Response Questions Some Typical Answers to Short Questions Some Typical Answers to Long Questions Chapter 15: Animal Behavior Review Kinds of Animal Behavior General Animal Behaviors Animal Movement Animal Rhythms Communication in Animals Foraging Behaviors Social Behavior Review Questions Multiple-Choice Questions Free-Response Questions Short Question Long Questions Answers and Explanations Multiple-Choice Questions Free-Response Questions A Typical Answer to Short Question Some Typical Answers to Long Questions Chapter 16: Ecology Review Population Ecology Human Population Growth Community Ecology Coevolution Ecological Succession The Flow of Energy in Ecosystems Species Diversity and Trophic Interactions Biogeochemical Cycles Human Impact on Ecosystems Review Questions Multiple-Choice Questions Free-Response Questions Short Questions Long Questions Answers and Explanations Multiple-Choice Questions Free-Response Questions Some Typical Answers to Short Questions Some Typical Answers to Long Questions PART II: LABORATORY REVIEW Chapter 17: Review of Laboratory Investigations Review Summary of AP Biology Laboratory Investigations Graphing and Interpreting Data Designing an Experiment Statistical Analyses Investigation 1: Artificial Selection Part I: Artificial Selection of a Trait Part II: Further Investigation of a Trait Investigation 2: Modeling Evolution Part I: A Mathematical Model for Evolution Part II: Generate “What If” Scenarios Investigation 3: Comparing DNA Sequences Part I: Using BLAST to Find Evolutionary Relationships Part II: Additional Investigations Using BLAST Investigation 4: Diffusion and Osmosis Part I: Cell Surface Area Part II: Diffusion and Osmosis Part III: Observing Osmosis in a Living Cell Investigation 5: Photosynthesis Part I: Determining the Rate of Photosynthesis Part II: Investigating Factors That Affect the Rate of Photosynthesis Investigation 6: Cellular Respiration Part I: Determining the Rate of Respiration Part II: Investigating Factors That Affect the Rate of Respiration Investigation 7: Mitosis and Meiosis Part I: Modeling Mitosis Part II: Evaluating an Environmental Effect on Mitosis Part III: Cancer and the Cell Cycle Part IV: Modeling Meiosis Part V: Crossing Over in Meiosis Investigation 8: Bacterial Transformation Part I: Transferring a Plasmid into a Bacterium Part II: Determine Transformation Efficiency Part III: Design Your Own Investigation Investigation 9: Restriction Enzyme Analysis of DNA Part I: Review Restriction Enzymes Part II: DNA Mapping Part III: Separating DNA Fragments Investigation 10: Energy Dynamics Part I: Estimating Net Primary Productivity Part II: Estimating Energy Flow Between Producers and Consumers Part III: Investigating Additional Energy Flow Questions Investigation 11: Transpiration Part I: Density of Stomata Part II: Factors That Influence Transpiration Rate Investigation 12: Animal Behavior Part I: Fruit Fly Response to Light and Gravity Part II: Fruit Fly Response to Chemicals Part III: Comparing Fruit Fly Preferences Investigation 13: Enzyme Catalysis Part I: Determine a Baseline for Peroxidase Activity Part II: The Effect of pH on Enzyme Activity Part III: Investigate Other Effects on Enzyme Activity Review Questions Multiple-Choice Questions Free-Response Questions Short Questions Long Question Answers and Explanations Multiple-Choice Questions Free-Response Questions Some Typical Answers to Short Questions A Typical Answer to Long Question PART III: AP BIOLOGY PRACTICE EXAMS Equations and Formulas Chapter 18: Practice Exam 1 Section I Part A – Multiple-Choice Part B – Grid-In Section II Answer Key for Practice Exam 1 Section I (Multiple-Choice and Grid-In Questions) Multiple-Choice Questions Grid-In Questions Scoring Your Practice Exam Section I (Multiple-Choice and Grid-In Questions) Section II (Free-Response Questions) Combined Score (Sections I + II) Answers and Explanations for Practice Exam 1 Section I: Multiple-Choice and Grid-In Questions Multiple-Choice Questions Grid-In Questions Section II: Free-Response Questions Scoring Standards for the Free-Response Questions Chapter 19: Practice Exam 2 Section I Part A – Multiple-Choice Part B – Grid-In Section II Answer Key for Practice Exam 2 Section I (Multiple-Choice and Grid-In Questions) Multiple-Choice Questions Grid-In Questions Scoring Your Practice Exam Section I (Multiple-Choice and Grid-In Questions) Section II (Free-Response Questions) Combined Score (Sections I + II) Answers and Explanations for Practice Exam 2 Section I: Multiple-Choice and Grid-In Questions Multiple-Choice Questions Grid-In Questions Section II: Free-Response Questions Scoring Standards for the Free-Response Questions Index Chapter 1 An Overview of the AP Biology Exam This chapter introduces you to the AP Biology exam. You’ll learn how this book can aid you in your preparation and what to bring on exam day. It also details the format of the exam and how it is scored. The “What’s on the Exam” section outlines the four broad principles, called “Big Ideas,” that are covered on the exam and offers strategies for answering the three question types: multiple-choice, grid-in, and free-response. The last section of this chapter details how to best use the practice exams in this book to enhance your study. How You Should Use This Book The Advanced Placement program is designed to encourage students to take challenging courses in high school and receive college credit for their efforts. Many high schools offer classes especially designed for the AP program, but any course or program of study, whatever it is called, is appropriate as preparation for taking the AP exam if the content is at the college level. This book helps you to prepare for the Advanced Placement Examination in Biology. It does this in three ways: It reviews the important material that you need to know for the actual AP exam. These reviews are detailed but written in an organized and condensed format, making them especially useful for studying. It provides you with review questions that reinforce the review. Many of the review questions, like those on the AP exam, require considerable thought to determine the correct answer. In addition, some of the review questions ask you to apply the reviewed material to new situations and, as a result, increase your breadth of understanding. Answers with complete explanations provide additional opportunities to understand the material. It offers two complete practice exams, giving you the opportunity to evaluate your knowledge and your test-taking skills. Taking these practice exams helps to improve your AP exam score because they are similar in content and format to the actual AP exam. Complete explanations are given for each question, and a scoring worksheet is provided to help you determine your score. When preparing for a test, have you ever wished that you had a copy of your teacher’s lecture notes? The review sections in this book are very much like lecture notes. Each section contains all of the important terminology with brief descriptions. All of the important biological processes are outlined with a key word or phrase, listed in an easy-to-remember sequence. After each key word or phrase, a short explanation is given. When you study the material the first time, you can read the key words and the short explanations. When you review, you can just study the key words, rereading the explanations only as needed. You should consider this book, however, as a supplement to your textbook, your laboratory exercises, and your teacher’s lectures. Much of the excitement and adventure of biology can be obtained only through hands-on activities and discussions with teachers. In addition, textbooks provide background information, extensive examples, and thought-provoking questions that add depth to your study of biology. Each time you study a topic in class, after listening to the lectures and reading the textbook, use this book to review. Underline or highlight material to help you remember it. Write in the margins, noting any additional material that you heard in lectures or read in your textbook that you or your teacher thinks is important. Then answer the review questions and read the answer explanations at the end of each chapter. This will reinforce your learning. At the end of your biology course, this book will be a single, condensed source of material to review before the AP exam. Begin your final preparation several weeks before the AP exam by reviewing the material in each chapter. Then take the two practice exams at the end of the book. What to Bring to the Exam 1. A No. 2 pencil and an eraser are required for the multiple-choice and grid-in section. 2. A pen with black or dark-blue ink is required for the free-response section. 3. A calculator with a 4-function (+, –, ×, ÷) and square-root capability is allowed for the entire exam. Programmable, graphing, and cell-phone calculators are not permitted. A calculator will be especially useful for the grid-in and free-response questions, but may be used for multiplechoice questions as well. Buy this calculator as soon as possible so that you can begin using it early in your biology course. Practice with the calculator frequently so that you are as familiar with it as you are with your cell phone. You don’t want to spend time figuring out how to take a square root for the first time during the AP exam. 4. You are not allowed to bring your own scratch paper. For the multiplechoice sectio...
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