0_292345378-Libro-Intro-to-Law.pdf - ~TRODUCTION TO LAW By ROLANDO A~REZ LL.B San Beda College Founding and Managing Partner Suarez Paredes Zamora

0_292345378-Libro-Intro-to-Law.pdf - ~TRODUCTION TO LAW By...

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Unformatted text preview: ~TRODUCTION TO LAW By ROLANDO A~REZ LL.B., San Beda College Founding and Managing Partner, Suarez, Paredes, Zamora & Suarez Law Offices; Law Practitioner and Professar of Law · Author: Principles, Comments and Cases in Constitutional Law I; Principles, Comments' and Cases in Constitutional Law II; Agrarian Reform and Social Legislation; · Comparative Study: Roman Law and Philippine Law, First and Second Editions; Introduction to Law, First, Second and Third Editions; Notes and Coniments, Proclamation No.3 and The Provisional Constitution of the Philippines; Agrarian Reforrri,- Co~peratives and Taxation; A Mile to Go {or Genuinè:I;and Reform in the Philippines; Statutory Construction; Torts and Damages FOURTH EDITION Publlshed & Dlstrlbuted by t.IPHR RECEIVEQ -u • . 8 ~· ~ fJATf ' l\, .• TABLE OF CONTENTS . . . > <l. .. Acknowledgment .............................................. ...............•....... Dedication ····························~······~:~., ..................................;........ Preface to the Fo11:rth Edition .........': ............................. ;........ Chapterr • •• 111 v vii ·) , · '•'j LAW, ITS CO:NçEPT ANI> CLASSIFICATION Definition of law ............. ,..~··~·························,.~·.-·.'",'"'"············· Classification of law ............................................................... · Sources oflaw •............................................................ ~........... l 2 4 Chapter II .1·', : ' WORLD'S LEGAL SYSTEM . !' '~ : The three prevailing legai system .......•...... :......................... Roman Law ................................................................ ~............ Value and importance ofRoman.Law .................................. Politica! History of Rome ........... ;; .......•........................• ,..,,.,. Common law ...............................•.• ;•.o; ••••••• : ••••• ; ••••••••••••••• ;;;...... Mohammedan law .............................. ;...•................•. ~ .........•.. ·· Blending of Legai Systems in the Philippines ....•............... 6 .·:7 .7 9 · 14 14 .14 ·' Chap.ter III LAW AND ITS APPI,.ICATION Court's duty to decide every case .; .... :.................................. Application of laws ........... .............•....... ................................. Statutory construction, its c~ncept, purpose, and effect .•.. Construction distinguished from interpretation ................. Meaning of the rule: "One must iilterpret first before he construes" :... ;.. ;.. ;:......................................... ;......... :..... Intrinsic aids distinguished from: extrinsic aids ..............•.. Purpose of interpretation and coristruction ... i.: •.. ;............... ix 16 17 17 17 18 18 18 When is it necessary and not necess11ry ,to interpret and con~?truct? .~: .. ;.... :.. :.. :........... ~ .. ~:.:~: .......................... . Who interprets the law and who.dete;rmii~es legislative_ ~ntent? ........ , .............. :.... Which prevails ..:.__ the letter of the law or the spirit ofthe law? ..................................................................... . Aids in interpretation· and construction ............................. . Simplification of the rule regarding the use of extrinsic aids ............................................................ . ,T .......................... ChapterVI 18 19 19 20 24 ChapteriV THE LEGAL PROFESSION AND THE QUALIFICATIONS AND PROCEDURE FOR ADMISSION TO THE PRACTICE OF LAW Qualificatìon for admission to the practice of law ............. . First requirement .................................................................. . Second requirement .............................................................. . Purpose of imposing said requirements .............................. . Procedure for admission to the practice of law .................. . Consequence of failure to pass said examination .............. . Practice of law is more of a privilege than a right ............ . Practice of law is a profession and not a business ............ . The duties of a lawyer .......................................................... . Lawyer's compellsation .......... :.............................................. . Disciplinary power over attorneys ....................................... . Integrated Bar of the Philippines .................................. ,.... .. Integration of the bar defined ............................................... . Legal an d constitutional basis ............................................ .. Supporting arguments in support of constitutionality and legality ................................ ;.................................. . 26 26 27 28 28 29 29 30 31 31 32 33 33 33 33 ·chapterV PERSONS Concept of a person ............................. ,................. ;.............. .. Capacity ................................................................................. . When does the personality of a natural person begin? .... .. When does the personality of a private corporation (private juridical person) begin? ................................ .. When is a fetus considered horn? ........................................ . x 35 36 37 38 38 CONCEPT AND NATURE OF MARRIAGE Concept ................................................................................... . Definition of marriage ......................................................... .. Requisites of a valid marriage ............................................ .. Essential requisites ............................................................... . . . l F ormal requ1s1tes .................................................. ,............... .. Requirements if any or both of the contracting parties are between 18 and 21 years old and if any or both are not emancipated by marriage .................. . Requirement if any of the contracting parties is between 21 and 25 years old ...................................... .. Effect if marriage is celebrated within the three (3) months period on the basis of a marriage license issued in violation of the said period ......................... .. Authority of the solemnizing officer .................................... . Marriage license .................................................................... . Formalities of marriage ....................................................... .. Void and voidable marriage ................................................ .. What marriages are void from the beginning? ................. .. What are other voi d marriages? ......................................... .. Essential requisites: (l) Legai capacity and (2) consent freely given ....... ~ ............................................. .. What constitutes fraud as a ground for annulment of marriage ................................................ . Effect of annulment of voidable marriage .......................... . Status of children born-out ofmarriages ab initio ............ . Status of children horn out of voidable marriages ............ . Restrictions and precautions to be observed by the court in issuing the decree of annulment.. .......... . Legal separation ................................................................... .. Grounds for legal separation ............................................... . Within what time should an action for legai separation be filed? ...........·................... ;...................... .. Evidence required as basis for judgment in action for legal separation ........................................... . What is adultery? .................................................................. . What is concubinage? ........................................................... . Requisites for legal separation ............................................ . Effects of legal separation ................................................... .. Effects after filing of the petition (Art. 61, FC) ................ .. xi 42 42 43 44 45 46 47 47 47 48 48 48 50 50 55 56 57 57 58 58 58 58 59 . 59 60 60 60 61 61 Effects during pendency of legai separation (Art. 49, FC) ..... ;............................................................ . ·Effects of the decree of legai separation (Art. 63, FC) .................................................................. . Effects during the proceeding for legal separation or of annulment of marriage ...................................... .. Parent;1l authority is exercised by the parent designated by the court (Art. 213, FC) ....................... . Effect of reconciliation of the parties (Aris. 65 and 66, FC) ...................................................·. In case of breach of mutuai obligation or mutuai help and support ............................................. . In case of breach of mutuai obligation to observe respect an d fidelity ....................................................... . As regards the obligation of the spouse to live together ... . Absolute divorce .................................................................... . Conjugal partnership of gains ............................................. . Definition of paraphernal property ..................................... . Rights and Obligation Between Husband and Wife .......... . What are the duties of husband and wife? ......................... . Scope of duty to live together .............................................. . Mutuai respect and fidelity .................................................. . Mutuai help an d support ...................................................... . ~:~~~reg::q~!xa:~i::;:ri;;·b;·································· gratuit~ title? ............................................................ . What is a mamage settlement? .......................................... . Who are the parties to a marriage settlement? ..............•... Systems that may be adopted by the parties to govern their property relations ................................... . What systems govern? .......................................................... . In the absence of marriage settlement, or when the agreed regime is void, what governs the property relations between husband and wife? ......... . Concept of donation propter nuptias ................................... . Requisites of donation propter nuptias ............................... . Distinctions between donation propter nuptias and ordinary donation .................................................. . Rights and Obligations Between Husband and Wife Common to husband and wife ..................................... . To livc together .....................................: ................................ . Wife may establish a separate domicile .............................. . Other consequences of marriage .......................................... . xii ChapterVII 62 62 62 63 THEFAMILY Family defined .. .. .... .. .. .. ... .. .. ..... ... ..... .. .... .. ... .. ... .. ... .. ... ... ......... Family suits are discouraged .... ... .. .. .. .. ... .......... ..... ... .. .. .. ...... Family home defined ............................................................. Advantages of a family home................................................ 74 74 74 75 Chapter VIII 63 63 64 64 65 65 66 66 66 66 66 67 67 67 68 68 68 69 69 70 70 70 71 72 72 73 PROPERTY Property defined ..................................................................... Principal classification of property .. .. ... .. .......... ..... ....... ........ Classification of real or immovable properties.. ..... .. .... ..... .. Movable or personal properties ... .. .. ........ .. .. .. .... .. ................. Definition an d concept of ownership ... ... .... .. ... .... .. ........... .. .. Extent of ownership ... .. .. .. ... .. ... ....... .. .. ... ... .. .. ...... .. ..... .... ........ Ownership of a hidden treasure ........................................... Definition of hidden treasure ... ... .. .. .. .. .... .. .. .. ... ...... ....... .. ...... Modes of acquiring ownership ... ..... .... .. .... .. .. .. .... .. ... .. ........... Attributes of ownership ......................................................... Important articles of the New Civil Code on ownership an d possession .. ....... .. ... .. ....... ......... .. .. .... .. ... Effects of possession ..... .. ... ....... .. ..... .. .. ... ... .... ... ... ..... .... ... ...... 76 77 77 79 79 80 81 82 82 84 85 87 Chapter IX GENERAL PRINCIPLES ABOUT CONTRACTS AND OBLIGATIONS Elements of a contract ... ... ... .... ... .. .. .. .. ... ... .. .. .. .... ..... ....... .... ... When is a contract perfected? ............................................... Can the contracting parties agree on any term or condition? ......... :........................................ Basic principles to remember apout contracts ..... .. ......... ... . Conce p t of obligation ... .. ... ... .... ... .. .. ..... ... .. .............. .. ......... ..... Sources of obligation ...... .. .... .... ... .... .. .. .. ... ... .. .. ... ... ....... ..... .. ... Nature an d effects of obligations ..... .. ... .. ........ ... ......... .......... Obligation of a perso n obliged to give something .... ... .. ...... Obligation to give a determinate thing ................................ When is a thing specific or determinate and when is it generic or indeterminate? ..................................... Effect of obligation to deliver a specific thing and a generic thing ....... ;............................................... xiii 90 91 91 92 98 99 99 99 100 100 100 Effect of obligation ................................................................ . Effect of obligation not to do ................................................ . Debtor is in default from the time of demand ................... . Effect if there is frau d, negligence or delay ....................... . Kinds of damages .................................................................. . Responsibility arising from fraud (dolo) ............................. . Responsibility arising from negligence (culpa) .................. . Kinds of culpa ........................................................................ . Distinctions between culpa contractual, culpa aquiliana and culpa criminal ..... ;................................ . Is a person responsible for those events which could not be foreseen, or which though foreseen are inevitable? ............................................................... . Kinds of obligation ................................................................ . Definition and illustration ............... ,................................... . Extinguishment of obligations ............................................. . 101 101 101 102 102 102 102 103 103 104 104 104 106 ChapterX SPECIAL CONTRACTS Sale .......................: ................................................................ . Agency .................................................................................... . Partnership ............................................................................ . Loan ........................................................................................ . Pledge an d mortgage ............................................................ . Antichresis .................... ~ ........................................................ . Common carriers .................................................................... . 110 114 119 121 123 124 125 Actual example of an acknowledgment of a will ................ . Qualifications of witnesses to notarial wills ...................... . A will can be revoked or altered .......................................... . In case of supplement or alteration ........... :........................ . In case of revocation ............................................................. . 134 135 135 135 136 ChapterXII TORTS AND DAMAGES ' Definition of a quasi-delict ................................................... . Requisites of a quasi-delict .................................................. . Quasi-delict is a civil wrong ................................................. . The act or omission must be without intent to cause damage ........................................................... . If there is no intention to cause damage ............................ . Distinctions ............................................................................ . What is negligence? .............................................................. . What is the test to determine negligence? ......................... . Degree of care of negligence that is required ..................... . What are the defenses that can be interposed in quasi-delict? .............................................................. . Old cases ............................................................................... . New cases ............................................................................... . 138 139 139 139 139 140 140 142 142 143 144 148 Chapter XIII POLITICAL LAW AND THE CONSTITUTION OF THE REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES ChapterXI SUCCESSION Conce pt and definition of succession ................................... . What inheritance includes ................................................... . Kinds of succession ............................................................... . What is a will? ....................................................................... . Characteristics of a will ........................................................ . Wl.o can make a will? ........................................................... . When is a person of sound mind? ........................................ . Wills allowed under the New Civil Code ............................ . Requisites of a valid will ..................................................... .. Actual example of an attestation clause ............................. . Actual example of attestation clause where testator caused some other perso n to write his name ............. . xiv 129 129 130 130 130 131 131 131 131 133 133 Definition ............................................................................... . Constitution ........................................................................... . Basic ptiriciples of the Constitution .................................... . Classifications of the Constitution and its definitions ...... . The 1987 Constitution may be changed ............................. . Due Process of Law .............................................................. .. Procedura! Due Process in Administrative Proceedings .. .. Search an d Seizure ............................................................... . Privacy of Communication and Correspondence ................ . Freedom of Speech and of the Press ................................... . Freedom of Re ligion .............................................................. . Liberty of a bo de and Travel ................................................. . Right to Information ............................................................. . Right of Association .............................................................. . Taking of Private Property for Public U se ......................... . xv 163 165 165 166 171 173 178 179 179 180 181 182 182 184 185 Prohibition against impairment of obligation of contracts ................................................................... .. Free access to courts and quasi-judicial bodies an d adequate legai assistance ..................................... . Right to remain silent and to have competent an d independent counsel ............................................. . Right to bail ...................................................... :................... .. Due Process in Criminal Proceedings ................................ .. Habeas Corpus ...................................................................... .. Speedy disposition of cases before ali judicial, quasi...
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